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Winter, 2016
Volume 42, Number 4
  
10 October 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




People enter the St. Simon Monastery 9 October to attend an event to commemorate the second anniversary of the clashes in Cairo’s Maspero Square, where 30 Christians were killed and more than 320 injured by security forces during a protest against discrimination. (photo: CNS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany, Reuters)

Two years after the massacre at Maspero, Copts still waiting for justice (Fides) On the second anniversary of the massacre of Maspero, which on 9 October 2011 saw dozens of Copts massacred by the departments of the Egyptian army, the Coptic community organized a vigil in Cairo with candles. The participants in the vigil yesterday showed photos of the victims and denounced again the perpetrators, pointing the finger at former General Marshal Hussein Tantawi and senior representatives of the army then. After the vigil, protesters tried to reach Tahrir Square in procession, but their attempt was prevented by army units that dispersed the demonstration by resorting to tear gas…

In Egypt, a campaign to promote an ‘Egyptian Islam’ (Washington Post) On a recent Friday, Egyptian officials dispatched an Islamic preacher named Mustafa Nawareg to a mosque full of angry people — distraught relatives and friends of demonstrators killed by security forces. It was a crowd used to hearing fiery sermons that called the dead “martyrs” and exhorted followers to take to the streets. But now the crowd would hear from Nawareg, who was sent there by the government to “correct the fallacies of extremist thought.” It took about five minutes for the shoes to start flying. “Come down from your stage, you infidel!” yelled a man as the crowd surged toward Nawareg. He felt hands clasp his neck before he managed to escape. Nawareg’s sermon was part of a campaign by Egypt’s military-backed government to “standardize religious discourse” and promote what authorities describe as the true “Egyptian Islam.” But critics say the effort could add fuel to a violent backlash that has included a suicide bombing in the heart of Cairo and regular attacks on security forces in the Sinai Peninsula…

Orthodox Coptic bishop addresses bishops at plenary (B.C. Catholic) Coptic Orthodox Archbishop Mina of the Eparchy of Mississauga, Vancouver, shared the plight of Copts and other Christians in Egypt with Canada’s Catholic Bishops on 23 September. “Living in Canada and experiencing freedom of religion is something people take for granted,” Mina told the more than 80 bishops gathered at the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops’ (C.C.C.B.) annual plenary here. “It is my pleasure to clarify for your graces reality of events taking place in Egypt at this time…”

Christian graves in Jerusalem still being vandalized (Washington Post) Christian leaders in Israel are up in arms over what they say is a string of relentless attacks on church properties and religious sites — most recently the desecration of a historic Protestant cemetery where vandals toppled stone crosses from graves and bludgeoned them to pieces. The attack in the Protestant Cemetery of Mount Zion, one of Jerusalem’s most important historic graveyards, has struck a particularly sensitive nerve because some of the damaged graves belong to famous figures from the 19th and 20th centuries, a key period in Jerusalem’s history. Among them are a German diplomat, the founder of an orphanage who was a significant contributor to modernizing the city, and a relative of the owners of a prominent hotel…

Romanian Orthodox Patriarchate hosts theological conference (Basilica News Agency) On 3 October 2013, Romanian Orthodox Patriarch Daniel opened the International Theological Congress, an assembly joining representatives of state institutions, of hierarchs, and other participants from around the world. The conference will focus on the work of the late Rev. Dumitru Staniloae, a Romanian Orthodox priest, theologian and professor. “The role of the theologian is to emphasize spiritual virtues. I only want to underline the fact that Father Staniloae related the rationalist Occident to the contemplative Occident. Today, Father Staniloae is not only the famous Romanian theologian — he is a European who offers our country full European vocation and individualizes us as a nation,” said Victor Opaschi, Romania’s minister of religious affairs…



Tags: Egypt Violence against Christians Jerusalem Coptic Orthodox Church Romanian Orthodox Church

9 October 2013
Greg Kandra




In this image from 2010, sisters and patients gather for evening prayer at Grace Home, a home for HIV-infected children and patients in Trichur, India. Read more about the remarkable work at the home in Full of Grace. And to learn how you can help, visit our India giving page. (photo: Peter Lemieux)



Tags: India Children Sisters Health Care HIV/AIDS

9 October 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Pope Francis greets New York Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan, president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops and chair of CNEWA’s board, at the Vatican on 7 October. Leaders of the U.S.C.C.B. were at the Vatican for an annual meeting. (photo: CNS/L’Osservatore Romano)

Cardinal Dolan reflects on meeting with Pope Francis (Vatican Radio) Of their half hour meeting with the pope, Cardinal Dolan said: “We conveyed to him the love and the admiration and the esteem and gratitude of the Catholic people of the United States, and indeed of the people of the United States and especially the bishops. We had spoken about a beautiful new sense of a freshness and creativity within the church that’s thanks to his providential leadership.” Cardinal Timothy Dolan says last week’s shipwreck off the Italian island of Lampedusa, in which hundreds of African migrants died, continues to bring tears to the pope’s eyes…

Pope Francis urges prayer for peace in embattled regions (VIS) In his greetings in various languages following today’s catechesis, the pope addressed with special affection the bishops from Ethiopia and Eritrea, reiterating his closeness to them “in prayer and in suffering for the many sons of their land who lost their lives in the tragedy of Lampedusa.” Pope Francis also recalled, during his greetings to Arabic-speaking faithful Pope Benedict XVI’s apostolic exhortation “Ecclesia in Medio Oriente,” delivered a year ago in Lebanon. “I ask you to pray for peace in the Middle East: in Syria, in Iraq, in Egypt, in Lebanon and in the Holy Land, where the Prince of Peace, Jesus Christ, was born. Pray that the light of Christ reaches all hearts and all places, unto the ends of the earth…”

How the E.U. turns its back on refugees (Der Spiegel) They come seeking refuge, but when asylum seekers cross into the European Union, they often find little compassion. In Greece, they are held in squalid detention camps, while in Italy they often end up on the street. The correspondents of Spiegel Online report on the situation at entry points in various European countries…

Syria fighting continues amid disarmament program (Al Jazeera) Syrian government warplanes bombed rebel positions near a strategic northern town Tuesday, as international inspectors continued to tour production and storage facilities of the country’s chemical-weapons arsenal, activists said. The warfare is a reminder that the agreement to destroy the Assad regime’s unconventional weapons doesn’t address an ongoing civil war that has seen more than 100,000 killed with conventional arms…

World Bank: Israeli restrictions cost Palestinian economy billions (Los Angeles Times) Israeli restrictions in the West Bank cost the struggling Palestinian economy more than $3.4 billion a year, according to a report released by the World Bank on Tuesday. More than half of West Bank lands are largely off-limits to Palestinians, the report said. Increasing access to these lands could boost gross domestic production by as much as 35 percent, generate $800 million in additional annual revenue for the Palestinian Authority, cut its deficit in half and reduce reliance on foreign aid, it said…

Ousted Egyptian president to stand trial next month (Los Angeles Times) Muhammad Morsi, the deposed Egyptian president, will be put on trial next month, the state news agency reported Wednesday. Mr. Morsi, who has been detained since the military forced him from office on 3 July, will face charges of inciting the killing of opponents, an accusation that his supporters in the Muslim Brotherhood have called trumped-up…



Tags: Egypt Pope Francis Refugees Israeli-Palestinian conflict Immigration

8 October 2013
Bob Pape




Sister Piera Carpenedo of the Sisters of St. Dorothy tells a story to her hearing-impaired students at the Ephpheta Institute in Bethlehem, just one institution CNEWA is proud to support through the generosity of our donors. (photo: Steve Sabella)

Bob Pape is director of major gifts for CNEWA.

At CNEWA we take very seriously our obligation to inform our donors on four fundamental points.

First, we promptly acknowledge that your gift was received, and through our receipt and thank you letter, we acknowledge our appreciation for your sacrifice on our behalf. Many of you have also received handwritten notes from members of our staff or phone calls to thank you for your sacrifice. You have partnered with us in our mission and we want to let you know how appreciative we are of your prayers and support.

Second, we inform you that your donation was used for the purpose for which you intended; whether for the greatest need or a special project, humanitarian appeal, needy child support, religious sponsorship or as more recently seen in Syria, an emergency appeal for a particular group of people in dire need. Third, we will let you know the outcome of the project, appeal or support, so you can see the impact your donation had in the delivery of our mission. As a CNEWA partner, you have aright to share in our successes and to be informed of our continuing challenges. This all goes into the process of delivering on our mission. This all goes into being a partner of CNEWA.

Fourth, we inform you through our published financial statements of how much of every dollar spent by CNEWA goes directly to program or project support and how much is expended for administrative expenses.

We are grateful for your steadfast prayers and support and recognize the commitment you have made to us and the sacrifice incurred for such a commitment. Your right to know these fundamental points will always be upheld at CNEWA.

CNEWA does not receive any government funding.

On behalf of those we have the privilege of serving, THANK YOU.



8 October 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




For Syrian refugees in Jordan, a new sense of home (New York Times) (slideshow)

Egyptian attacks escalating amid stalemate (New York Times) The lethal conflict between Egypt’s military-backed government and its Islamist opponents escalated on Monday, with an expansion of attacks against government targets, signs that the authorities have failed to secure the streets and that both sides refuse to back down. Three brazen attacks across the country included a drive-by shooting near the Suez Canal that killed six soldiers, a car bomb that killed three police officers and wounded dozens near the Red Sea resorts area, and the first rocket-propelled grenade launched in the struggle, exploding near an elite enclave of the capital and damaging a satellite transmitter…

Life goes on in Damascus, despite civil war (Der Spiegel) During dinners with politicians and professors, or in conversations in the narrow streets of the old city, everyone, without exception, expressed fear of the rebels. They worry that the rebels will be accompanied by fundamentalists, who will bring with them Sharia law. All the people we spoke with said that they distrust the West because the reasoning there is too simplistic and countries there set moral standards they fail to live up to themselves. And most said that while they don’t support Assad, they want to preserve their way of life. “Just look at what’s happening in Egypt and Libya,” said one man…

Christians march to denounce acts of intimidation by extremist settlers (Fides) A spontaneous march of Christians in Jerusalem was held on Monday, 7 October, through the streets of the Holy City to denounce the frequent desecration perpetrated by groups of extremist Jewish settlers against Christian places of worship. A group of more than 100 Christians, starting at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, then walked to Latin Catholic and Anglican cemeteries, desecrated in recent weeks with racist graffiti…

Patriarchs: Let us create a joint committee for dialogue (Fides) Mar Dinkha IV, patriarch of the Church of the East, and Louis Raphael I, patriarch of the Chaldean Church, have come together in agreement regarding the creation of a “joint committee” as a tool to tackle together the difficulties shared by the two sister churches…



Tags: Syria Egypt Refugees Violence against Christians Christian Unity

8 October 2013
Greg Kandra




In Astoria, Greek Orthodox priests and faithful celebrate the annual feast of St. Irene Chrysovalantou. (photo: Cody Christopulos)

Several years ago, we toured Astoria, New York, and discovered a thriving Greek enclave:

Officially, Piraeus is Greece’s third largest city, after Athens and Thessalonica. But don’t tell that to Greek-Americans in the New York area. For them, the “third city of Greece” is, in fact, Astoria, a neighborhood on the northwestern edge of the Borough of Queens.

Once home to singer Tony Bennett, stage star Ethel Merman and television’s Archie Bunker, Astoria at its height as a Greek-speaking enclave in the 1970’s boasted an estimated 300,000 Greek-Americans — more than the number of Greeks living in Piraeus.

Economic advancement, marriages, retirement, death and, to a lesser degree, assimilation, have contributed to the decline in the number of Astoria’s Greek-Americans. About 40,000 Greek-Americans remain in this traditionally working-class neighborhood of row houses and apartment buildings. But even as young urban professionals — fleeing Manhattan’s escalating housing costs — and other immigrant groups replace them, Astoria retains its Greek flavor, thanks almost entirely to the abundance of Greek restaurants and cafes, butchers and bakers, churches and clubs.

“We’ve given the area a different color,” said Spiro Svolakos, 53, who came to Astoria almost 30 years ago. “We’ve made it a restaurant town.”

Dutch and German immigrants first settled in the farthest northwestern reaches of Long Island in the early 17th century. Early residents called the settlement Hallet’s Cove, but in the early 19th century renamed it after John Jacob Astor to lure America’s first millionaire to invest there. Waves of other immigrants soon followed. The late 19th century brought Czechs, Irish and Italians, groups that founded Astoria’s Catholic parishes, schools and social clubs. Greek immigrants joined them.

In the 1920’s, new immigration laws — based on nationality — significantly curtailed Southern European immigration to the United States. But after the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which ended the national-quota system, tens of thousands of Greeks, many of them from the island of Cyprus, streamed in. Most settled in the New York area, including Astoria, which quickly became the hub of local Greek-American life and a home away from home.

“As soon as you arrived in Astoria, you had your deli, your fish market, your butcher,” recalled Eugene Bouzalakos, who came to Astoria in 1979. “You didn’t even have to speak English. The schools spoke Greek, the church people spoke Greek. You didn’t miss Greece because you had everything.”

...” One thing about Greeks,” said Maria Bouzalakos, ”they like to see people eat.“

“And if there are four of us eating, I set a table for five,” added her husband, Eugene. “Always, someone comes. If not, I have set a place for Christ.”

“I go to Greece a lot, and I lament to them how they’ve sold their heart and soul for the euro,” said butcher John Gatzonis.

“They have given up their religion and have become Europeans,” he said, recalling a recent trip to Greece when he saw most Greeks disregarding the traditional period of fasting preceding the feast of the Dormition of Mary in August.

“If one wants to see a Greek now, you don’t go to Greece, you go to North America or Australia,” he said. “I’ve evolved, but to some extent I’m the same Greek I was in 1956.”

The family meal is one of those traditions preserved by many of Astoria’s remaining Greek-American families.

In all eastern Mediterranean cultures, “the meal time, the dinner time is a sacred time,” said Father George Anastasiou of St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Cathedral.

“Christ instituted the Last Supper as a meal. To eat with your family is sacred. You can see that to this day in Greek culture. We don’t have that American style of eating. We all order six, seven, eight dishes, and it becomes a familial thing.”

Read more about Discovering New York’s Greek Enclave in the November 2007 issue of ONE.



7 October 2013
Greg Kandra




The haunting melodies of the Armenian liturgy are chanted by a Bourj Hammoud choir. (photo: Armineh Johannes)

Several years ago, we profiled Armenians who had settled in Lebanon:

Determined to preserve their cultural identity, religion, language and traditions, these Armenian refugees established clubs, schools, churches, hospitals and dispensaries. Today they attend Armenian churches and schools, eat Armenian food, speak Armenian and read Armenian periodicals. Whether members of the Armenian Apostolic, Catholic or Evangelical churches, Lebanon’s Armenians live in harmony. Although tight-knit, they too are affected by the specters of unemployment, emigration and cultural disintegration haunting all Lebanese.

Roughly 100,000 people — 80 percent of the population of Bourj Hammoud — are Armenian. One of the most densely populated areas in the country, Bourj Hammoud has become one of the largest manufacturing hubs in Lebanon, a center for jewelry, shoes and clothing, all crafted by Armenians. And while Armenians prefer to work with fellow Armenians, their clients are usually fashion-conscious Maronites, Sunni Muslims and Druze. Yet inflation and regional economic challenges have affected even this affluent quarter.

“I have difficulty earning a living today; there is no work here,” says Armenak Kaiserian, who has run a shoe repair shop in Bourj Hammoud for 40 years.

In the narrow streets of Bourj Hammoud, traffic is so dense even the most intrepid drivers hesitate to venture there. Casting a rather somber pall on the area, five-story buildings border the narrow streets; drying clothes, hanging on lines along balconies, compete with webs of electric and telephone cable. Although it is hard to imagine, everyone in Bourj Hammoud can distinguish his or her own wires among the mess.

Read more about Lebanon’s Little Armenia in the July-August 2002 issue of the magazine.



Tags: Lebanon Cultural Identity Armenia Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church

7 October 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Ecumenical Bartholomew I led the closing celebration of the 1,700th anniversary of the Edict of Milan, beginning with a solemn doxology, in St. Michael’s Cathedral in Belgrade on 5 October. (photo: Serbian Orthodox Church)

Orthodox Christians mark 1,700th anniversary of Edict of Milan (Yahoo! News) Eight Orthodox Christian leaders, dignitaries from other faiths, politicians and thousands of others on Sunday celebrated the anniversary of the Edict of Milan, which established toleration for Christianity in the Roman Empire 1,700 years ago. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew called in a sermon for more religious freedom and reconciliation, flanked by Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem, Patriarch Kirill of Russia, Patriarch Irinej of Serbia and their counterparts from Albania, Cyprus, Poland, Slovakia and other smaller Orthodox churches…

Kidnapped Italian Jesuit reported alive in Syria (Vatican Insider) “Father Paolo Dall’Oglio is alive and is being treated well by his kidnappers, who are members of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) extremist group,” says anti-regime activist Khalaf Ali Khalaf, reporting on information received from Al Qaeda-affiliated sources close to the extremist group…

Chaldean Patriarchate prohibits unauthorized sale of church property (Fides) The Patriarchate of Babylon of the Chaldeans has formally prohibited the sale of land and houses belonging to the patrimony of the church without permission “of the high ecclesiastical authorities.” The restrictive provision was made public in a statement on 5 October and makes explicit reference to the Holy See as a last resort call to grant licenses for the sale of properties belonging to the church…

Dozens killed in clashes as Egyptian identity politics turns violent (Christian Science Monitor) Large crowds gathered nationwide to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Egypt’s 1973 war with Israel. Supporters of former president Muhammad Morsi, ousted in a 3 July military takeover, also rallied in support of their leader and the democratic process they believe he embodies. In the capital, 30 anti-coup protesters were killed during pitched battles with the security services. Marching through the streets of west Cairo’s Dokki district, protesters shouted “we are not real… all this is photoshopped” in reference to the common refrain that Muslim Brotherhood supporters fabricate attendance numbers for the weekly demonstrations that have followed Mr. Morsi’s ouster…

At least 66 people killed in a day of bloodshed in Iraq (Washington Post) A suicide bomber blew himself up among a crowd of Shiite pilgrims passing through a mainly Sunni neighborhood in Baghdad and another detonated his explosives inside a cafe north of the capital, the deadliest of several attacks across Iraq on Saturday that killed at least 66 people. The killings, which also included attacks on journalists and anti-extremist Sunni fighters, are part of the deadliest surge in violence to hit Iraq in five years. The accelerating bloodshed is raising fears that the country is falling back into the spiral of violence that brought it to the edge of civil war in the years after the 2003 United States-led invasion…

Israelis, Palestinians intensify talks despite skepticism (Daily Star Lebanon) Israeli and Palestinian negotiators held a new round of talks on Monday, picking up the tempo of their meetings at the request of the United States in the face of widespread skepticism that they will ever reach a deal. The two sides resumed direct peace negotiations in late July after three years of stalemate and have conducted a series of discussions far from the gaze of the media over recent weeks, without any outward hint of the slightest breakthrough…



Tags: Iraq Egypt Ecumenism Middle East Peace Process Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I

4 October 2013
Greg Kandra




A little boy shows Pope Francis where to sit during a lunch break in Assisi on 4 October. (photo: Catholic TV/Vatican)

On Friday, Pope Francis paid a pastoral visit to Assisi, home of the saint whose name he took, and spoke of how Christians must strip themselves of worldliness:

The pope offered this message in the same hall in which St. Francis, about 800 years ago, undressed himself and laid his fine clothes at his wealthy father’s feet, renouncing his riches and inheritance in favour of a life of poverty consecrated to God.

The pope once again put aside his prepared speech and began his impromptu remarks by debunking a notion that had circulated in the press in recent days: that he would imitate St. Francis by divesting the bishops, the cardinals and himself, as well. However, he said, today serves as a good occasion to invite the church to strip itself of worldliness.

All of the baptized comprise the church and all have to follow Jesus, who stripped himself and chose to be a servant and to be humiliated on his way to the cross. “And if we want to be Christians, there is no other way,” he said.

Without the cross, without Jesus and without stripping ourselves of worldliness, he said, “we become pastry shop Christians … like nice sweet things but not real Christians.”

“We need to strip the church,” he said. “We are in very grave danger. We are in danger of worldliness.”

The Christian cannot enter into the spirit of the world, which leads to vanity, arrogance and pride, he continued. And these lead to idolatry, which is the gravest sin.

The church is not just the clergy, the hierarchy and religious, he said. “The church is all of us and we all have to strip ourselves of this worldliness. Worldliness does us harm. It is so sad to find a worldly Christian.”

“Our Lord told us: We cannot serve two masters: either we serve money or we serve God. … We can’t cancel with one hand what we write with another,” he remarked. “The Gospel is the Gospel.”

The pope acknowledged the local poor who were gathered with him, saying: “Many of you have been stripped by this savage world that does not give work, that does not help, that does not care if children die of hunger … that does not care if many families do not have anything to eat or money to bring bread home.”

Referring to the hundreds of refugees who died in a shipwreck off the Italian island of Lampedusa Thursday, the pope lamented the large numbers of people who die trying to escape dire conditions in their home countries.

It is ridiculous that a Christian would want to follow a worldly path, he continued. “The worldly spirit kills. It kills people; it kills the church.”

The pope then asked the Lord to bestow upon Christians the courage to strip themselves of the spirit of the world, which he called “the leprosy, the cancer of society and the cancer of the revelation of God and the enemy of Jesus.”

He concluded: “I ask the Lord that he gives us all the grace to strip ourselves.”



Tags: Pope Francis Catholic Assisi

4 October 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




In this 24 September photo, Catholicos Karekin II of All Armenians, right, greets Catholicos Aram I of the Great House of Cilicia at the Mother Cathedral of Holy Etchmiadzin prior to the commencement of the first synod of the Armenian Apostolic Church in six centuries. (photo: Catholicosate of Cilicia)

Armenian Apostolic Church faces modern hurdles (New York Times) As church leaders gathered in Etchmiadzin last week for a rare bishops’ conference, they seemed to be ready to put differences aside as they confronted a new set of challenges: entrenched secularism at home, assimilation of followers in the large Armenian diaspora abroad and general disaffection with organized religion. “The church is in dire need of renewal,” Catholicos Aram I, the leader of the Lebanon-based faction of the church, said in an interview as he strolled across the campus here of the Mother See. “And by renewal, I mean the church has to be responsive to the needs and expectations of the people.” He added, “The church has to respond to the challenges of the present-day world…”

Christians under threat in Syria as Islamist extremists gain influence (Washington Post) When radical Islamists tore down a cross and hoisted a black flag above a church in the northern Syrian city of Raqqah last week, it underscored the increasingly hostile environment for the country’s Christians. Although Syria is majority Sunni Muslim, it is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse countries in the Middle East, home to minorities including Christians, Druze and Shiite-offshoot Alawites and Ismailis. But the country’s conflict, now in its third year, is threatening that tapestry. While the primary front in the war has pitted Sunni against Shiite, Christians are increasingly caught in the firing line…

Muslim Brotherhood protest in Cairo challenges military rule (Al Jazeera) Defying a security crackdown, thousands of supporters of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood and ousted President Muhammad Morsi marched in Cairo Friday toward Rabaa al Adawiya square, the site of their former protest camp, which security forces crushed in August, a Reuters witness said. At least one Muslim Brotherhood supporter died from a gunshot wound in Cairo after clashes broke out Friday in several cities throughout the country at pro-Morsi rallies, according to multiple sources…

Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church holds regular session (Russian Orthodox Church) Patriarch Kirill greeted the Holy Synod members, offered reflections on the 1025th anniversary of Christianization of Kievan Rus and introduced them to the agenda of the session, which focused heavily on pastoral formation and education…

Churches targeted by extremists in Karnataka (Fides) There has been a surge in anti-Christian violence in the state of Karnataka. The Evangelical Fellowship of India, which brings together thousands of evangelical Christian communities, said that religious services and prayer meetings of ecclesial communities over the last two months have been targeted, pastors beaten and Christians arrested. In recent episodes, Hindu fundamentalists attacked and looted a church in Mandya district in Karnataka…



Tags: Egypt Syrian Civil War Violence against Christians Russian Orthodox Church Armenian Apostolic Church





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