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Winter, 2015
Volume 41, Number 4
  
27 January 2016
Don Duncan




Mardin’s co-mayor, Februniye Akyol, represents the new face of Christian political representation in southeast Turkey. (photo: Don Duncan)

In the Winter edition of ONE, journalist Don Duncan profiles Syriac Christians “Coming Home” to Turkey. Below, he offers some additional reflections on the political situation in the region.

Thoughts of politics kept coming to my mind when I was reporting this story about the current state of Christian life in the Tur Abdin region of southeast Turkey.

Through the numerous interviews I conducted with members of the community for the article, I realized that, although the community in Tur Abdin today is small, at just 3,500, it nonetheless represents a variety of stances with regards to political participation and its uses.

By and large, there seems to be two main schools of thought in the community.

The first school seeks to keep a low profile, attempting to gain more freedoms without much political agitation. These people, an old guard of sorts, tend to look back, recall past atrocities, and reminisce about the time when Christians ruled Tur Abdin.

The second school, which is a kind of new guard in the community, is one that is a little bolder. It believes that that rights are not granted but rather taken, through overt political engagement with the system and through political agitation.

It is in this second school of political thought where one finds the new faces of Christian political representation, like Mardin’s co-mayor Februniye Akyol. These new faces are attaining representation under the broader political current of the Kurdish movement for democratic change, itself a product of the 1999 ceasefire between the illegal militant Kurdish group, the PKK, and the Turkish state.

Regardless of their different approaches to progress, the reality is that both political schools in Tur Abdin’s Christian community currently face the fact that they are numerically insignificant — both in southeast Turkey and in the country as a whole.

Unlike the days prior to the 1915 genocide, when Christians’ numbers meant they could formulate and apply political will directly within the regional and national context, today their small number means they must always work via a more powerful proxy.

The evolution of Kurdish politics (from armed insurrection to pro-minority political engagement) over recent years has produced a window of opportunity through which Christians can push for and attain more rights as a minority.

However, the Christians and their hope lie on unstable ground and they have no control over factors that can change the playing field.

That ground is being shaken even now. The ceasefire between the Turkish state and the PKK crumbled last July and hostilities between the two players have flared. This may well cause the Kurdish political ethos to swing back from democratic participation to the stance of armed conflict it had prior to the 1999 ceasefire.

If this happens, the political window of opportunity that the Tur Abdin Christians have recently found and exploited will snap shut and they will find themselves in political obscurity once again.

But for now, the low-key, pacifist and non-confrontational approach of the old guard in the Tur Abdin Christian community will not be without worth — making slow and silent progress in attaining new rights and privileges for its community.

Read more about Christians returning to Turkey in “Coming Home” in the Winter 2015 edition of ONE. And to get a sense of life in their homeland, and how they are adapting, check out the video below.




27 January 2016
Greg Kandra




Sister Jincy Paul helps students during an art class at Ashabhavan, the “House of Hope” in Kerala. To learn just how this house is bringing hope to children with developmental disabilities, read this inspiring account in the Winter 2015 edition of ONE. (photo: Jose Jacob)



27 January 2016
Greg Kandra




Pope Francis speaks during his general audience in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican
on 27 January. (photo: CNS/Paul Haring)


Pope issues appeal for Middle East Christians (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis made a special appeal for suffering Christians in the Middle East on Wednesday, during the course of his weekly General Audience in St. Peter’s Square. “God does not remain silent before the suffering and cries of His children,” he said, “nor does He remain silent before injustice and persecution: He rather intervenes and gives, by His mercy, rescue and salvation...”

Vatican expresses hope for peace talks (Vatican Radio) The need for “substantive” and “sustained” peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians and the conviction that this week’s peace negotiations in Geneva, Switzerland are the “best chance the International Community has to bring a stable and lasting peace to Syria and to the region:” those are the key points made by a top Vatican diplomat in an address Tuesday at the United Nations Security Council Open Debate on the situation in the Middle East...

Russian pressure forces historic meeting to move to Crete (RNS) The first major council of the world’s Eastern Orthodox churches in over 1,200 years will take place in Crete after the influential Russian Orthodox Church said political tensions between Moscow and Ankara ruled out holding it in Turkey. The compromise, reached at a preparatory meeting held outside Geneva, means the Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church will not take place as planned in Hagia Irene, a church-turned-museum in Istanbul where the Council of Constantinople confirmed the Nicene Creed in 381...

Activists: Hundreds vanishing in Egypt (The New York Times) After the security forces raided the home of Islam Khalil, a 26-year-old salesman, last summer, he seemed to vanish without a trace. Mr. Khalil, who lives about 50 miles north of Cairo in El Santa, Egypt, had not been formally arrested, so his family could not determine where he was being held, or by whom. His relatives, who said he did not have access to a lawyer, worried that he was dead. When Mr. Khalil finally emerged, four months later, at a police station in the port city of Alexandria, Egypt, he looked dirty and emaciated, according to his brother Nour...

Gaza residents complain of underground digging (Jerusalem Post) Residents of various Israeli communities along the southern border of the Gaza Strip have renewed complaints of reverberating, underground drilling sounds possibly linked to the construction of infiltration tunnels by Palestinian terrorists, Channel 10 reported Tuesday night. The residents told the Israeli news channel that at first they believed the middle of the night excavation sounds were caused by rain storms that hit the country earlier this week, however when the sounds desisted at 4 a.m. they realized their source was not the precipitation...

First “Atlas of America’s Orthodox Christian Monastaries” to be published next month (OCA.org) The first-ever Atlas of American Orthodox Christian Monasteries will make its debut in February 2016. Edited by Alexei Krindatch, Research Coordinator for the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the USA, the 150-page volume is available on-line for $19.95 from Greek Archdiocese Holy Cross Bookstore. Drawing on his extensive research, as well as fascinating stories and “insider” anecdotes, Mr. Krindatch offers readers a scholarly introduction into traditions of Eastern Christian monasticism and a history of Orthodox monasteries in America...



Tags: Egypt Pope Francis Gaza Strip/West Bank Russian Orthodox

26 January 2016
Greg Kandra




Orthodox Metropolitan Gennadios of Italy, Pope Francis and Anglican Archbishop David Moxon, the archbishop of Canterbury’s representative to the Vatican, give a blessing at the end of a prayer service at the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls on 25 January. The service concluded the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity. Read more about the service here.
(photo: CNS photo/Paul Haring)




26 January 2016
Greg Kandra




Pope Francis shakes hands with President Hassan Rouhani of Iran at the start of their private audience in the Vatican on 26 January. (photo: Vatican Radio/ANSA)

Pope meets Iranian President Rouhani (Vatican Radio) Today, in the Vatican Apostolic Palace, the Holy Father Francis received in audience His Excellency Hassan Rouhani, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, who subsequently met with His Eminence Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Parolin, accompanied by His Excellency Archbishop Paul Richard Gallagher, secretary for Relations with States. During the cordial discussions, common spiritual values emerged and reference was made to the good state of relations between the Holy See and the Islamic Republic of Iran, the life of the Church in the country and the action of the Holy See to favour the promotion of the dignity of the human person and religious freedom...

Pope asks mercy, pardon for ways Christians have harmed one another (CNS) After walking across the threshold of the Holy Door with an Orthodox metropolitan and an Anglican archbishop, Pope Francis invoked God’s mercy upon divided Christians and apologized for times that Catholics may have hurt members of other denominations. “As bishop of Rome and pastor of the Catholic Church, I want to beg for mercy and forgiveness for un-Gospel-like behavior on the part of Catholics against Christians of other churches,” the pope said 25 January at a prayer service concluding the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity...

Archbishop: Syria peace talks must remember Christians (Vatican Radio) The Vatican representative to the United Nations agencies in Geneva said on Tuesday the “needs of Christians” and other religious minorities must be “taken into serious consideration” at UN-sponsored talks aimed at ending the Syrian civil war...

Chaldean patriarch: “evil hand” has brought chaos in the Middle East (Fides) In a speech prepared for the conference on the rights of religious minorities in the Muslim world, the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, Louis Raphael I, outlined the underlying causes of the conflicts that are tearing apart his country and the entire region. “It seems that the evil hand has put in place all that was planned to change the situation,” he said, causing untold suffering to the peoples of the Middle East. And “it is no secret” that “the intervention of external ‘players’ who acted according to their own ambitions in the region was crucial.” They are the ones who “have used democracy and freedom as a cover to rob our natural resources, peace and freedom, and they have created chaos and terrorism in Iraq and the Middle East”...

“Ecumenism of blood” for persecuted Christians (Catholic Register) We live in a time when ecumenism is driven by martyrdom, preached Cardinal Thomas Collins to a mostly Chaldean gathering at the Chaldean Cathedral of the Good Shepherd in northwest Toronto. “Ecumenism of blood — that is what we are experiencing now in these days of persecution,” said Collins. Though persecution of Christians is most visibly associated with the Middle East, Christians in Africa, India and many other places have been targeted and killed, said Collins. The cardinal singled out the 21 Egyptian Coptic migrants who were beheaded by Islamic State terrorists in Libya last February...

Dialogue between the Church and Hindu fanatics? (Fides) The news relaunched by some newspapers that the Hindu nationalist group “Rastriya Swayamsevak Sangh” intends to initiate dialogue with the Catholic Church and Christian groups has created an intense debate in India. According to information circulating, Indresh Kumar, member of the National Council of the RSS, said he wanted to “build bridges of good will with minority communities,” such as Christians and Muslims in India...



Tags: Syria India Pope Francis Chaldeans Iran

25 January 2016
Elias D. Mallon, S.A., Ph.D.




Deir Mar Elias, shown here in an image from 2005, was destroyed last week by ISIS. It was the oldest Christian monastery in Iraq. (photo: Wikipedia)

Reports of the destruction of Deir Mar Elia, a sixth century monastery in Iraq, surfaced around the world this past week. The responses ranged from outrage and shock to the numbing realization that ISIS destroyed a piece of history again.

One of the marks of genius of the Islamic culture has been its ability to appropriate what was good, useful and beautiful from cultures that it had conquered.

The entire Middle East has developed one civilization on top of another for more than 5,000 years. The two most recent and familiar are Christianity and Islam, which are the major elements in a centuries-old synthesis that ISIS is now threatening with extinction in the Middle East in a way that can only be described as nihilistic.

While geography may not be very interesting for many, it is fascinating. Maps can be like an archaeological excavation with layer upon layer of history waiting to be revealed. Maps of the Middle East are particularly interesting as human civilizations have such a deep footprint. Place names often indicate things that have been long forgotten. The Arabic word qal‘at, for example, appears in many place names. It means “fortress” and the name can remain long after every trace of a fortress has disappeared.

Another place name often found is the Arabic word dayr. In English this may appear as dayr or deir. Thus, we find Al Dayr in Iraq and Deir Ezzor in Syria, and there are many others. The word is important because it means “monastery.”

Before the arrival of Islam, and for some time afterward, Christianity was the major religious and cultural force in Mesopotamia. Different forms of the Syriac tongue formed the language of worship, literature — especially poems and hymns — theology and philosophy of the Mesopotamian church.

Removed but not necessarily isolated from the theological controversies that plagued Christianity in the Greek and Latin speaking worlds, Syriac-speaking Christian monks created a huge body of literature. Their monasteries were great centers of learning where many Greek philosophical texts were translated and preserved.

The Muslim conquerors in Mesopotamia and Syria in the seventh century took over a highly developed civilization that had deep roots in Christianity. Over the centuries, and for a variety of reasons, the Christian population diminished and the Muslim population grew. Significant and at times influential Christian minorities existed in Mesopotamia until the second half of the nineteenth century when the Christian population began to plummet.

With the exception of Lebanon, the contemporary Middle East is overwhelmingly Islamic. Here Islamic means more than “Muslim.” While it is true that the vast majority of Middle Easterners follow the religion of Islam and are Muslims, their literature, art, architecture, music — although often different from one Muslim country to another — are profoundly influenced by Islam. In fact the “dominant culture” in the Middle East has been so influenced and transformed by Islam over the centuries that it is very easy to overlook the deep Christian roots in the region.

There is something nihilistic in almost every totalitarian movement, be it secular or religious. It may be because totalitarianism, regardless how overwhelming and violent, is basically brittle and fragile. Totalitarianism has an almost universal fear of history and art, both of which show that things can be and have been different.

Nazism’s attempt to recreate the history of the “German Nation” as the Third Reich, Stalin’s purges of artists, the Cultural Revolution under Mao Zedong, the killing fields of Pot Pol in Cambodia, the personality cult of Kim Jong-Un in North Korea and the wanton destruction wreaked by ISIS in the Middle East are all attempts to erase the past.

While ISIS is more complicated than many analysts believe, it is clearly nihilist in its methods and ideology, which is unusual in Islamic history. ISIS is driven to destroy all vestiges of the past, such as the destruction of Assyrian statues in the Mosul Museum and the Hellenistic remains of Palmyra. While there are some reports of ancient artifacts being sold rather than destroyed, the end result is the same — the elimination of history. In the case of ancient Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman art, “theological” reasons can be manufactured; ancient Judaism, Christianity and Islam have a long history of “smashing idols.”

But any “theological justification” just does not ring true. The same attack on the past that is carried on by ISIS against the ancient worlds is also being made against Christianity and even other Muslims who, by the standards of the Qur‘an (ostensibly the sacred text of ISIS) are not idolaters. Churches and monasteries, even ancient Islamic shrines such as the Tomb of Jonas in Mosul, are being destroyed.

In the past, one religion often took over an important monument of another. The Umayyads took over the Church of John the Baptist in Damascus (seventh century), the Ottoman Turks took over Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and the Christian Reconquistadores in Spain took over the great mosque in Cordoba (both 15th century). In each case, the conquering religion changed and adapted the structure to its own faith’s theology and practice. However, none of the monuments were destroyed. There is a difference between religious imperialism and nihilism.

The recent discovery of the destruction of the Monastery of Mar Elia in Iraq is one of many instances of churches and Christian institutions being destroyed by ISIS. Coupled with the brutal killings of Muslim dissidents, Christians and other religious minorities, the international community is faced here with both cultural and ethnic-religious genocide. While nihilistic regimes have a history of ultimate self-destruction, the evil that can be accomplished by them is beyond belief. In a world that is increasingly interconnected, the destruction of a sixth century monastery, which was basically a ruin, may not seem important in the “grand scheme” of things. It is however, something that cannot be overlooked when mass destruction — the ultimate nihilistic goal — is increasingly easy to accomplish.



25 January 2016
Greg Kandra




Syrian refugees wait at the border near Royashed, Jordan on 14 January. Bishop Antoine Nassif, Canada’s first bishop for Syriac Catholics, says he’ll make refugees a priority.
(photo: CNS/Stringer, EPA)


The newly ordained bishop for the Syriac Catholic Church in Canada has pledged to make his first priority the suffering of refugees. The story, from CNS:

Bishop Antoine Nassif was ordained on 23 January by Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignace Joseph III Younan at Our Lady of Deliverance Cathedral in Beirut. He will lead the first apostolic exarchate for Syriac Catholics living in Canada, with the jurisdiction based in Montreal and Laval, Quebec.

The Canadian exarchate, similar to a diocese, covers territory there that was once part of the Newark, New Jersey-based Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance, established in 1995.

After his ordination, Bishop Nassif noted the new exarchate was erected in the Year of Mercy and at a time when God “is offering so much" to the Syriac church, most notably the beatification in August of Syriac Catholic Bishop Flavien Michel Melki, a century after he was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam.

The new bishop added that the blood of the martyrs “didn’t quench the thirst of their persecutors,” alluding to the persecution facing Christians in Syria and Iraq as a result of Syria’s civil war and the uprooting of Christians by the Islamic State group.

Days before his ordination, Bishop Nassif, who was born in Biakout, Lebanon, told Catholic News Service that he never imagined becoming bishop or going to Canada as shepherd to Syriac Catholics there.

“But I’m obeying. I’m ready to be where God sends me. This is the real call, to understand and to feel that in every step I can see God's hand guiding me,” he said.

“With what is happening in our Middle East, and most importantly with the refugees — Syrian, Iraqi and others — I will put their suffering on the top of my priorities, especially their spiritual needs,” he pledged.

Read the full story.



25 January 2016
Greg Kandra




In this image from November 2015, Pope Francis receives a gift from children during during a visit to Christuskirche, a parish of the German Evangelical Lutheran Church, in Rome. The Vatican announced on 25 January that the pope will visit Sweden in October to participate in an ecumenical event marking the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation.
(photo: CNS/Massimiliano Migliorato, Catholic Press Photo)


Pope will travel to Sweden to commemorate Reformation (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis will travel to Sweden in October for a joint ecumenical commemoration of the start of the Reformation, together with leaders of the Lutheran World Federation and representatives of other Christian Churches...

Christian area in Syria attacked (Fides) At least three people were killed and 10 others wounded in a bomb attack in Syria’s northeastern Kurdish city of Qamishli, on on the evening of Sunday 24 January. The attack took place in the mostly Christian neighborhood and was carried out with a motorcycle bomb. The blast hit the restaurant in “Miami Street”...

The life of Syrian refugees who escape civil war for a refugee camp (Huffington Post) Why would anyone want to stay in a refugee camp? Last year I visited Zaatari Refugee Camp, located just a few miles from the Syrian border in Jordan. I was traveling with International Orthodox Christian Charities, which carries out an expansive ministry addressing the many needs of Syrians inside and outside of their country...

Russian Orthodox TV reporters expelled from Moldova (TASS) Reporters of the Russian Orthodox television broadcaster Tsargrad have been deported from Moldova in the wake of an information blockade in that country. Tsargrad Editor-in-Chief Aleksey Kravchenko told TASS that on Saturday morning Moldova’s special services forced a TV team — the correspondent Ivan Kolesnikov and the cameraman Sergey Krasnov — to leave their hotel and then drove them to the airport where the reporters were made to board an Aeroflot airliner bound for Moscow...

Muslim leaders plan summit on protecting non-Muslims (RNS) Hundreds of Muslim scholars will meet in Morocco next week to reassert the rights of non-Muslims living among them as Christians and other religious minorities flee extremism across the Middle East for safety and freedom elsewhere. In these times, Muslims must affirm their tradition’s true teachings on tolerance, said Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, co-founder of Zaytuna College, the first Muslim liberal arts college in the United States. The summit meeting, expected to attract more than 300 Muslim religious leaders, will hark back to the Charter of Medina, in which the Prophet Muhammad enumerated the rights of non-Muslims 1,400 years ago...

Indian Jesuit now serving refugees in Beirut (Vatican Radio) An Indian Jesuit priest and fearless human rights activist has moved to Beirut, Lebanon, to render his services to refugees. The Rev. Cedric Prakash — a well-known human rights and peace activist, who headed the human rights centre in Ahmedabad, Gujarat state, called “Prashant” — is working among the thousands of internally displaced people...

Celebrating centenary of cathedral in India (The Hindu) The valedictory of the centenary year celebrations of the St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral on Stringer Street, Broadway, was marked by a special service at the cathedral led by the head of the Orthodox Church, Baselios Marthoma Paulose II and later, a public meeting held at the Ewart School auditorium on Sunday...



Tags: India Pope Francis Ecumenism Muslim Islam

22 January 2016
CNEWA staff




Christians gather for Evening Prayer outside St. Joseph’s Church in Erbil, Iraq, just one area where CNEWA has worked with local churches and institutions to “bring light into their darkness.”
(photo: Don Duncan)


Five days after Christmas, a man sat down and wrote the following letter to CNEWA, in simple block letters on plain lined paper. We were surprised at the return address: a prison in Florida. But as we read these words, we found the message profoundly moving and humbling — a quiet reminder to us all of how God works in the world, and of the grace that can be found in unexpected ways, in unexpected places.

Dear CNEWA missionaries —

I found a copy of your magazine, “One,” at our chapel last weekend. I had never heard of CNEWA before, but I am very thankful that I now have! I found it to be more edifying than I know how to say, but I will try, anyway.

I am in prison for life for robbery, a result of drug addiction, which in its turn was a result of trying to run from God’s will and his claim on my life. I did not understand that when I was out there; but once I got some separation from that life, I could see it clearly. Since I was a cradle Catholic, who was educated by Dominicans through the eighth grade, I knew exactly what I needed to do to get right with the Lord. So I did those things, and I have been walking in his glorious light these last 25 years. I would not trade all of the “freedom” in the world for the relationship that prison compelled me to develop with the savior.

While that is true, it is also true that it is a struggle to keep my spiritual head above water. I have known for years how blessed I am to live in a country that allows me to have freedom of religion. In prison, no less! I thank God for that every day. Because of that, I have a Mass to attend and a Eucharist to receive every Sunday; I have access to a chapel library that is replete with Christian publications, books, Bible studies, study helps. It even has a section devoted to Christian literature. I can get Christian publications in the mail without fear of persecution. I understand how very fortunate I am to have it like this!

But after reading that one copy of your magazine, I understand much more thoroughly how blessed I am! None of the publications I see address foreign missions and needs, and I had no idea how bad things were for so many. It was greatly edifying to learn of your great efforts to bring light into their darkness and to relieve suffering wherever you can. I had no idea. I thank God for you and your ministry.

Because I have been here for most of the last three decades, I have extremely limited contact with the outside, and it has been many years since I was in a position to aid your efforts. I wish very much that I could. You can be certain that you will now have a staunch prayer partner every day from now on. It broke my heard to learn of the terrible abominations committed against God’s children and others, and I can certainly do that much to help you. It lifts me up to know that you faithfully continue the work.

I wonder if CNEWA has...a ministry to enable an indigent and out-of-touch prisoner to get your great publication? I wish that I could pay for a subscription, but I can’t. I would love to continue to be bolstered by stories of your ministry and our Lord’s worldwide work, if it is possible. There only a handful of Catholic Christians here, or any type of Christians, for that matter. Every one of us will read cover-to-cover any issue of your magazine that you send to me, you can be certain of that.

Please know that whatever you decide, you are now in my prayers, and you will remain so. May our Lord bless you all and prosper in your ministry.

Your brother in Christ,
(name)

We are sending a complimentary subscription to “our brother in Christ,” along with our gratitude and our prayers.

We are reminded of Pope Francis’s words to prisoners in Philadelphia last September: “I am here above all as a brother, to share your situation and to make it my own. I have come so that we can pray together and offer our God everything that causes us pain, but also everything that gives us hope, so that we can receive from him the power of the resurrection.”



22 January 2016
Greg Kandra




These two watercolor paintings are by Egyptian artist Gamal Lamie. His paintings at a Cairo art gallery depict calm mothers with serene children, shining stars, doves, flowers, trees, fish and blue waters, the many attributes of an Egypt that once existed, and, he believes, can again be achieved. (photo: CNS/courtesy Gamal Lamie)

Egypt has suffered terribly over the last few years, but one artist is trying to paint a different vision of what Egypt could be:

Gamal Lamie’s paintings at a Cairo art gallery depict calm mothers with serene children, shining stars, doves, flowers, trees, fish and blue waters — the many attributes of an Egypt that once existed, and, he believes, can again be achieved.

All it takes is hope, said the Egyptian artist, a member of Egypt’s Coptic Christian minority that traces its roots back to St. Mark the Apostle.

“I think during the last five years, you can see what happened in Egypt and the Middle East area. So ... as an artist, I send a message to the whole world that we need hope," Lamie told Catholic News Service almost exactly five years after a January 2011 revolution shook the predominantly Muslim North African nation and toppled longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak.

Waves of civil and political unrest across Egypt have killed and wounded thousands of people since then.

“Hope means peace, it means stability. It’s not weapons, it’s not fighting. We need to live in peace, that is why I call it ‘Hope,’” Lamie said of the title he’d chosen for his exhibit of watercolors in a small ground-floor apartment-turned-art gallery in an upscale district of Cairo.

Read the full story. Meantime, to support Egypt’s struggling Christians, visit this page to learn how you can make a difference in so many lives.







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