8 March 2019
Armenian Apostolic Patriarch Mesrob II of Constantinople and All of Turkey, center, meets with a delegation of visitors, including former CNEWA President Msgr. Robert Stern, left, in August 2005. (photo: CNEWA)
Armenian patriarch in Turkey, Mesrob II, dies at 62 (Daily Star Lebanon) Patriarch Mesrob II, the leader of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Turkey, has died. He was 62. Turkey’s state-run Anadolu Agency said the 84th Armenian patriarch of Constantinople died Friday at Istanbul’s Armenian Surp Pirgic hospital. He had been incapacitated since 2008 due to early onset Alzheimer’s disease…
India’s tribal people pledge to fight for forest rights (UCAN India) Indigenous communities in India are fighting against a Supreme Court of India order that threatens to evict millions of their people from their natural habitat. Hundreds of Dalits and Adivasis blocked trains and road traffic in several cities across India on 5 March as they held a shutdown protesting the court’s move and the federal government’s inability to overrule it…
Syrian Orthodox priest: Negotiations under way for release of archbishop (Fides) Syrian Orthodox priest Samuel Gümüs, engaged in the pastoral care of the Syriac Orthodox communities present in Germany, declared that the Syriac Orthodox metropolitan of Aleppo, Mar Gregorios Youhanna Ibrahim, is being held prisoner by ISIS in the Baghuz area of eastern Syria, and “negotiations” for his release are under way…
India’s alarming air pollution crisis (Vatican News) India has an alarming air pollution problem, containing 22 of the 30 most air-polluted cities worldwide, according to a new study…
7 March 2019
Tags: Syria India Armenian Apostolic Church Dalits
Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignace Joseph III Younan meets injured people in Douma, Syria, on 6 March 2019. (photo: CNS/courtesy Syriac Catholic Patriarchate)
Catholic prelates in Syria, accompanied by Philippine Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle, president of Caritas Internationalis, visited the eastern Ghouta region outside of Damascus and saw “unspeakable suffering.”
“In every face, mostly the children,” was a “very confused” expression, Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignace Joseph III Younan told Catholic News Service. The 6 March visit was part of the annual session of the Council of Heads of Catholic Churches in Syria.
Patriarch Younan said the overall reaction of the prelates while visiting Douma, the major city of eastern Ghouta, “was deep sadness and repulsion” in seeing “the horrible destruction of that region, held hostage for such a long time by radical Muslims.”
Patriarch Younan noted that “evidently, this visit had an impact on Cardinal Tagle, who expressed his deep grief in front of so much suffering,” adding that the cardinal compared the scenes to an earthquake or typhoon.
“Besides the humanitarian assistance so much needed and the urgent help to rebuild their city, it is mostly and, first of all, hope and dignity that this courageous community was looking for,” the patriarch added.
In addition to Patriarch Younan and Cardinal Tagle, participants in the meeting and the Ghouta outreach included Cardinal Mario Zenari, apostolic nuncio to Syria; Melkite Catholic Patriarch Joseph Absi, who hosted the March 4-6 council session at the patriarchate in Damascus; and Catholic bishops of Syria.
Ghouta, the last rebel bastion east of the capital city of Damascus, was secured by the Syrian government in April 2018. At one point, some 400,000 people were under siege in Ghouta, according to the United Nations. It was the site of alleged chemical attacks.
Patriarch Younan characterized the suffering in the city as “unspeakable.”
“It is shameful that the so-called free world was accomplice to that disaster for no reason than satisfying the greed and opportunism of its politicians. All fake news of the agglomerate media, like the show play of chemical attacks attributed to the Syrian soldiers, were based on lies, in order to keep the fighting going on,” Patriarch Younan said.
“Less than a quarter of the population could return without any harassment and managed to find lodging, despite the destruction and the harsh winter,” he said of the situation. The patriarch pointed out that in Douma, there had been 50 schools. To date, the government has rehabilitated 20 of them.
The elementary school the prelates visited “was packed” with 1,800 children, he recounted. “It will take a long time for the children to heal from the trauma they lived.”
“The youth we encountered, though hesitant and confused, were looking to start their life again,” Patriarch Younan said. “We saw a number of them responding to the draft in the military service, judging it as a best try to restart.”
Patriarch Younan said he, Cardinal Tagle and Patriarch Absi “assured the people of our prayer and solidarity and planted three olive trees on the school grounds, as a symbol of revitalized life.”
In their 6 March statement at the conclusion of their meeting, the Council of Heads of Catholic Churches in Syria said they addressed the “difficult humanitarian and social situation facing the Syrian people as a result of the conflict taking place in their homeland and the sanctions imposed on them from abroad.”
The prelates urged the international community and international organizations to lift sanctions, noting that the poorest are affected.
The council pointed to their Ghouta visit “to express their care and closeness to their suffering and destitute Syrian brothers,” noting that they spoke and listened to the people as an expression “of their love and solidarity.”
The council expressed “satisfaction at the security and stability achieved by the Syrian state and the Syrian army in most areas of Syria thanks to their great sacrifices and wise policies.”
It also thanked “all those with goodwill who are working to show the true picture of the Syrian crisis and lend a helping hand to the Syrian people.”
7 March 2019
Tags: Syria Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignatius Joseph III Younan
In this image from 2014, Syrian President Bashar Assad looks at destroyed religious artwork with a member of the clergy during a visit to the ancient Christian town of Maaloula, Syria. Syrian refugees who fled to Jordan have begun a bid to have Assad tried for war crimes.
(photo: CNS/Syria's national news agency handout via Reuters)
Syrian refugees launch bid to try Assad for war crimes (The Independent) Syrian refugees who fled to Jordan after being tortured and witnessing massacres have submitted dossiers of evidence to the international criminal court in a novel attempt to prosecute President Bashar al-Assad. Although Syria is not a signatory to the court, based in The Hague, lawyers in London are relying on a precedent set by the ICC in extending jurisdiction to the crime of forcible population transfers…
India’s alarming air pollution crisis (Vatican News) India has an alarming air pollution problem with 22 of the world’s 30 worst cities in the country, according to a new study. The 2018 World Air Quality Report by Greenpeace and Air Visual Analysis, released on 5 March, showed Delhi continuing to rank first among the world’s 62 worst capitals. Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Kabul (Afghanistan) are among other Asian capitals with polluted air…
Indian tribal people pledge to fight forest rights (UCANews.com) Tribal people in India are on the warpath against a Supreme Court of India order that threatens to evict millions of them from their natural habitat. Hundreds of socially poor Dalit and tribal people blocked trains and road traffic in several cities across India on March 5 as they held a shutdown protesting the court’s move and the federal government’s inability to overrule it…
Five years after ’Maidan,” Ukraine’s small successes are its real revolution (The Guardian) As we ponder the impact of the momentous events we have experienced, we rarely pay attention to the “smaller” stories. Such as this one from the region of Zhytomyr: under a new decentralization law, local communities have united into a single entity to control their budget and finance priority projects they’ve chosen themselves. They have been able to set up a local fire station — something the state had for years failed to provide…
6 March 2019
Tags: Syria India Ethiopia Dalits
St. Mary’s parishioners in Kingston, Pennsylvania, make peroghi, an Eastern European staple during Lent. (photo: Cody Christopulos.)
Today, Christians around the world mark Ash Wednesday — the start of the penitential season of Lent, notable for fasting, alms-giving and prayer.
But in many traditions, Lent is also notable for something else: food.
Jacqueline Ruyak wrote about this phenomenon in our magazine a few years ago, describing the way Eastern Europeans became masters at the art of making peroghi:
Traditionally, women made peroghi early in the morning to take to the men working the fields and forests for their midday meal. It is a time-consuming dish to prepare, so these days they are made on special occasions.
Along with the peroghi, I learned to make halusky with sauerkraut with the help of Anna Kosca. As good as it was, I was more impressed by her raka, a delicious caraway soup. It is a simple dish: a small onion sautéed in butter, flour to make a roux, caraway seeds, a dash of salt and paprika, and some water. Mrs. Kosca added some small dumplings to put in the soup. Another woman made a fragrant dill soup. And on the dreary, wet morning that we left Tichy Potok, Anna Kiktava and her sister Maria made a bean soup of kidney beans, diced carrots, kohlrabi, celeriac and potatoes.
In the early 20th century many Ruthenian immigrants came from villages in Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine to work in the coal mines of Pennsylvania. St. Mary Protector, a Byzantine Catholic church in Kingston, near Wilkes-Barre, was founded to serve these immigrants, whose descendants have stayed in the area long after the mines shut down.
Four times a year St. Mary’s holds a peroghi sale, twice during the 40-day Filipovka fast before Christmas and twice during the 40-day Great Fast before Easter.
For each sale, about 30 volunteers spend two days making 4,000 potato peroghi. Church fund-raisers selling Ruthenian food are common in most parts of Pennsylvania, including my hometown of Bethlehem. (The regional popularity of peroghi is such that Pittsburgh is called the “peroghi capital of the world.”) The language and many of the traditions of the old country may fade, but its foods bind the generations together. Such is the American “melting pot.”
Conversation at St. Mary’s peroghi sale inevitably turns to food. Just as in Eastern Europe, the parishioners once slaughtered their pigs around Christmas, curing the meat to last throughout the following year. For Lent, people made do with “a barrel of cabbage and a bin of potatoes,” I was told.
While some Byzantine Catholics (as Greek Catholics are called in the United States) observe a strict lenten fast, many just abstain from meat and dairy products on alternating days. As in Tichy Potok, older people tend to be more observant. Father Theodore Krepp, pastor of St. Mary’s, acknowledged the unevenness of the fasting. “We’re all working on perfection so there’s no expectation that we are perfect. Part of being a Christian is to keep working on it.”
Want to make your own? The recipe, below:
4 medium cooked potatoes, mashed
2 oz. sharp cheese, grated
Mix cheese and potatoes; let cool.
2 1/2 cups flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Mix flour and salt. Add the egg, sour cream, shortening and enough water to make a medium-soft dough. Knead well. Divide into two portions. Roll one portion out until thin. Using the open end of a glass, cut out circles. Place about one teaspoon of filling on each circle, fold over and pinch edges firmly. Place the peroghi on a floured board, then cover with a tea towel. Repeat with the rest of the dough. To cook, drop several peroghi into a pot of boiling salted water. When the peroghi float to the top, after about five minutes, remove from the pot and drain. Spread on a board to keep from sticking. Continue cooking the rest of the peroghi.
Peroghi are usually served with melted butter, onions browned in butter or sour cream. For browned onions, slice half of a medium onion and cook in about three tbs. of butter. Pour over the peroghi and toss so that they are covered and do not stick.
6 March 2019
Tags: Greek Catholic Church Slovakia Ruthenians
Hundreds of ISIS militants are leaving a besieged enclave in Syria. (video: ITV/YouTube)
Hundreds limp out of besieged Syria militant enclave (AFP) Veiled women carrying babies and wounded men on crutches hobbled out of Baghouz on Wednesday after US-backed forces pummeled the last militant village in eastern Syria. The Syrian Democratic Forces leading the assault expected more fighters to surrender with their families in tow before moving deeper in the Islamic State group’s last redoubt…
Patriarch Kirill to visit North Korea (AsiaNews) Moscow Orthodox Patriarch Kirill will visit North Korea at the invitation of President Kim Jong-un. The Patriarchal exarch for Southeast Asia, the 45-year-old metropolitan of Singapore Sergij (Chashin) revealed the news on 3 March, meeting with journalists in Bangkok. He added “in Pyongyang they always welcome us very cordially, we carry out our service there and I am recognized as the legitimate bishop…”
New Lebanon minister makes return of Syrian refugees a priority (Al Jazeera) Thousands of Syrians who fled to neighboring Lebanon when the war began are going back home. The new minister in charge of Lebanon’s millions of refugees, Saleh Gharib, is an outspoken supporter of the Syrian government. Gharib’s first act in the job was to visit Damascus, where he has vowed to make the return of refugees a priority…
Man arrested for alleged connection to rape of Indian nuns in 1998 (UCANews.com) A man has been arrested for his alleged involvement in the mass rape of four Catholic nuns that occurred more than two decades ago in central India. Police Superintendent Vineet Jain told ucanews.com that they arrested Kalu Limji on 5 March over his alleged involvement in the 1998 mass rape of nuns from the Foreign Missionary Sisters…
U.S. helping Ethiopia build capacity for disaster response (AfricaNews.com) Ethiopia’s National Disaster Risk Management Center (NDRMC) conducted a natural disaster simulation exercise to improve Ethiopia’s response to emergencies. The exercise was the first of its kind and provided a test run for NDRMC’s emergency operations center staff to coordinate a timely response to a simulated flood of the Awash River and areas around Lake Tana. This activity is part of an ongoing program supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to help Ethiopia to strengthen its National Incident Management System…
5 March 2019
Tags: Syria India Ethiopia Russian Orthodox
In this image from 2017, displaced Iraqi Christian boys serve Mass at a Catholic church in Amman, Jordan. Archbishop Ivan Jurkovic, the Vatican observer to U.N. agencies in Geneva, said on 5 March that violating religious freedom harms not only the individuals being persecuted, it also damages communities and often opens the door to further violence.
(photo: CNS/Muhammad Hamed, Reuters)
Violating religious freedom harms not only the individuals being persecuted, it also damages communities and often opens the door to further violence, a Vatican representative said.
Archbishop Ivan Jurkovic, the Vatican observer to U.N. agencies in Geneva, also insisted governments should make sure laws allow for conscientious objection, so people can “act freely, in accordance with their deepest conviction.”
The archbishop spoke on 5 March during a session of the Human Rights Council devoted to a report on freedom of religion or belief. The Vatican press office released the archbishop’s remarks the same day.
“The right to religious freedom blossoms or withers together with all human rights,” he said.
Despite decades of progress in putting the freedom of religion and belief alongside the right of freedom of expression “as one of the center pillars of the architecture of human rights,” he said “recent reports on the abuse of this right are astonishing.”
“They are worrisome,” he said, “for the predicament of victims who, in so many parts of the world, courageously face discrimination, intolerance, aggression, imprisonment and even death for staying faithful to their conscience.”
It is also worrisome for the future because when people and communities “are not allowed to live and celebrate in coherence with their deepest convictions, the bonds that keep society together dissolve and the violation of rights often turns into a violent crisis,” he said.
Another aspect of freedom of religion that “should be given due consideration,” he said, is the freedom from any form of coercion to act contrary to one’s faith, he said.
With so many more people of different cultures, religions and beliefs living side by side, it is “vital and sensible to incorporate into legislation, with due prudence and wisdom, options that allow everyone, when faced with a problem of conscience, to act freely, in accordance with their deepest conviction.”
Archbishop Jurkovic lamented increasing calls to restrict the right of conscientious objection.
Quoting a statement by Archbishop Paul Gallagher, the Vatican’s foreign minister, to the Human Rights
Council on 25 February, he said the desire for such restrictions “show how some politicians and even some quarters of international agencies, forgetting their nature and acting without a mandate, are still uncomfortable with the right of freedom of conscience and belief.”
5 March 2019
Tags: Iraqi Christians Vatican Persecution
The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) are struggling to take over the last ISIS-held area of Syria. The Kurdish-led group has slowed down its offensive after ISIS resorted to using civilians as human shields. (video: Al Jazeera/YouTube)
ISIS members ‘surrendering in large numbers’ in Syria (Al Jazeera) Thousands of people, including armed fighters, have left the last area held by ISIS in Syria, a spokesperson for the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) said. Mostafa Bali of the SDF tweeted that about 3,000 people had come out of the village of Baghouz in eastern Syria on Monday through a humanitarian corridor established by the Kurdish-led group for those who want to leave or surrender…
US: Gulf countries helped ease conflict between India and Pakistan (Voice of America) The United States says it used its allies across the world, particularly those in the Gulf, to help defuse tensions between India and Pakistan, after military skirmishes between the nuclear-armed neighbors last week raised fears of a war…
India sees rise in lynchings of Christians (Catholic News Agency) Violent attacks including public lynchings against Christians in India are reportedly becoming increasingly common, with international NGOs and the country’s Catholic bishops raising their voices in protest against mob violence. ”The common man of the country is feeling insecurity in his own country due to the increasing cases of mob lynching,” Archbishop Leo Cornelio of Bhopal wrote on 27 February…
U.S. closes Jerusalem consulate that gave Palestinians a link to Washington (NPR) The U.S. officially shut down its Jerusalem Consulate General on Monday, severing a connection that for decades served as a direct link between Palestinians and Washington. The consulate’s work is being folded into the new U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem — a move Palestinian officials have condemned…
A decade on, anti-Christian riots inspire the Indian Church (UCANews.com) More than a decade after the worst anti-Christian persecution in the history of India, victims and their families are turning out to be biggest witnesses and inspiration of the Christian faith in the country, church leaders told the 22 February gathering in Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore) city. ”When Christians die for their faith, it is a time for the Church to remember that martyrdom is like a seed,” said Archbishop Peter Machado of Bangalore. Martyrdom helps faith grow more quickly than can be achieved by theology or the Bible, he said…
4 March 2019
Tags: Syria India Jerusalem Palestinians Persecution
Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy staff welcome Metropolitan-Archbishop Borys Gudziak to the pastoral center on 1 March 2019.
(photo: CNS/courtesy Ukranian Catholic Metropolitan Archeparchy of Philadelphia)
While a graceful cascade of white snowflakes gently fell to the ground outside the chancery on 1 March, the staff of the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia welcomed the new Metropolitan-Archbishop Borys Gudziak to the archeparchy’s pastoral center.
Standing in front of a banner reading, “Welcome, Metropolitan Borys,” in both English and Ukrainian, featuring the Ukrainian colors of blue and gold, Bishop Andriy Rabiy offered a warm welcome to Archbishop
Gudziak, as he was presented with the traditional greeting of bread and salt and a bouquet of sunflowers.
After the welcome, Archbishop Gudziak met with the staff in the chancery conference room for an informal get-together. He briefly shared his goals for the archeparchy and also asked staff members for their prayers and to express what their expectations were of him: “What do you need of your new archbishop? What type of archbishop do you want?” he asked them.
Among the thoughts he shared with them, he said he wants to lead the archeparchy as a spiritual brother, father and shepherd, who would inspire the presbyterate, the religious and the laity, the entire archeparchy, to grow in their relationship to Christ.
For the church, for the world, in this age, he said, Catholics need to become a holy and spiritual presence to inspire all to live a life of virtue as they follow the teachings of Jesus Christ and do his will in the world.
He emphasized: “I want to be a good listener and I ask you to be my teachers.”
Archbishop Gudziak reflected on two qualities his mother sought to impress upon him and instill in him: kindness and gentleness. He hopes these character traits can be shared in his relationships with the clergy, religious and laity.
The new spiritual shepherd of the Philadelphia archeparchy, a native of Syracuse, New York was named to this hierarchical position by Pope Francis on 18 February. At the time of his appointment he was the Eparch of St. Volodymyr the Great Eparchy of Paris serving France, Benelux and Switzerland.
He will be formally enthroned 4 June in the Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Philadelphia.
Bishop Rabiy, an auxiliary of the archeparchy, has been serving as apostolic administrator since his appointment by Pope Francis after the pontiff accepted the resignation for health reasons of Metropolitan-Archbishop Stefan Soroka on 16 April 2018.
Auxiliary Bishop John Bura also serves the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia, which includes the District of Columbia, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey and parts of eastern Pennsylvania. It has a total Catholic population of about 15,000.
4 March 2019
Tags: Ukrainian Catholic Church
Indian passengers are shown returning from Pakistan on the Samjhauta Express, also called the Friendship Express. (photo: Vatican Media/AFP)
Tensions ease between India and Pakistan (Vatican News) A key train service between Pakistan and India resumed on Monday, signaling an easing of tensions between the two nuclear-armed countries after a major escalation of tension last week over the disputed Kashmir region…
Hundreds leave ISIS-held region of Syria (AP) Hundreds of people including fighters from the Islamic State group evacuated their last foothold in eastern Syria Monday hours after U.S.-backed Syrian fighters said they were forced to slow their advance because the extremists are using civilians as human shields…
Kerala denies it aims to control Catholic Church property (Asia News) The Kerala government, led by the Communist-Marxist party of India, denies it wants to control the local properties of the Catholic Church. According to party secretary Kodiyeri Balakrishnan, it is “mere speculation. Already there are laws to look into it and hence a new law is not required. Some people with vested interests are spreading rumors about this…”
Detained Ukrainian archbishop released in Crimea (Radio Free Europe) Authorities in the Russia-annexed Crimean Peninsula have released the head of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine in the region after briefly detaining him, a Russian lawyer says. The reason for the arrest on 3 March is not clear…
Leaders of Ethiopia, Eritrea, visit South Sudan for high-level talks (Africa News) Ethiopian Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki are in South Sudan on an official visit. The two departed from Asmara International Airport on Monday morning and have arrived in Juba to bolster existing ties between their countries. Abiy had visited Asmara on Sunday along with Kenyan president Uhuru Kenyatta...
Pope Francis to open archives on Pius XII next year (Vatican News) Reflecting on the reign of “the Servant of God Pius XII, of venerable memory”, Pope Francis said that he “guided the Barque of Peter in one of the saddest and darkest moments of the twentieth century”. The figure of Pius XII, he said, “has already been investigated and studied”, and widely discussed and even criticized — at times in a prejudiced or exaggerated manner. Today, he said, the pontificate of Pius XII is being re-evaluated, in the hopes that a more balanced historical judgement might emerge. To further those efforts, the Pope said that Vatican archival materials pertaining to Pius’ pontificate (1939-1958) will be accessible to scholars beginning on 2 March 2020…
1 March 2019
Tags: Syria India Ethiopia Vatican Pope
People ride motorbikes on the outskirts of Amritsar, India, 1 March 2019, before the arrival of an Indian air force pilot, who was captured by Pakistan two days earlier and later released. Catholic groups have joined the protest of military escalation in the region.
(photo: CNS/Danish Siddiqui, Reuters)
Catholic groups joined a protest against a military escalation in Pakistan and India following the recent suicide bombing in Indian-administered Kashmir, reported ucanews.com.
“If we don’t end war, war will end us,” read placards held by staff of the National Commission for Justice and Peace, the Catholic Church’s human rights body in Pakistan, at the protest in front of Lahore Press Club 28 February.
Archbishop Sebastian Shaw of Lahore also expressed solidarity with Pakistan’s armed forces in an interfaith news conference at the press club, ucanews.com reported.
“All issues must be resolved through peace talks and dialogue. War is not an option,” he said. Carrying Pakistani flags, the archbishop and clerics also prayed for peace.
Peace activists, including Christians nongovernmental organizations, also protested about “war mongering” and “bomb blasts.” Simultaneous demonstrations were held at press clubs in Islamabad and Karachi.
India and Pakistan conducted airstrikes on each other’s territory in late February as tensions ran high after 40 Indian paramilitary troops were killed in a 14 February suicide attack. A Pakistan-based terrorist outfit, Army of Muhammad, claimed responsibility.
Kashif Aslam, program coordinator of the National Commission for Justice and Peace, praised Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan for announcing the release of an Indian air force pilot captured 27 February after his jet was shot down. A video of Pakistani soldiers trying to protect him from villagers has gone viral on social media.
“This is a diplomatic scoop. We are on high moral ground at this moment. Hope sanity prevails with this peace gesture. We appreciate such steps by the Pakistani government but condemn the ongoing aggression on electronic and social media. Only people-to-people contact can improve our strained relations,” Aslam told ucanews.com.
“The ever-escalating defense budget should instead be diverted toward developing the people,” Aslam added. “Only demilitarization can promise progress.”
Pakistani priests are using pulpits and social media platforms to pray for peace.
“In the name of God almighty, give peace a chance. Come and negotiate and find a solution to the issues that displease us,” the Rev. Abid Habib, former regional coordinator of the Justice and Peace Commission of the Catholic religious major superiors, posted on Facebook.
India accuses Pakistan of supporting “a freedom struggle” in Kashmir against Indian administration. Some groups have also taken up arms in an effort to separate Kashmir from India.
An estimated 100,000 people have died, including civilians, militants and army personnel, since 1990, when Muslim militants began an armed struggle to free the region from Indian rule.
The conflict dates back to 1947 when India and Pakistan become separate states after British rule ended.
Both countries claim Kashmir in full and have fought at least three major wars and regularly exchange artillery and small-weapons fire across a disputed border.