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September, 2019
Volume 45, Number 3
  
22 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Relatives carry the coffin of an Iraqi police officer killed by militants, during a funeral in Najaf, Iraq, 20 May. The patriarch of the Chaldean Church denounced a recent series of car bombings and shootings in Iraqi cities that left at least 54 people dead and dozens more injured. (photo: CNS/Haider Ala, Reuters)

Chaldean patriarch warns surge in violence will divide Iraq (CNS) The patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church in Baghdad denounced a recent series of car bombings and shootings in Iraqi cities that left at least 54 people dead and dozens more injured. Patriarch Louis Raphael told Catholic News Service in a 20 May email that the current violence is between minority Sunni and majority Shiite Muslims, who also run the Iraqi government. Christians are not being directly targeted, he said. “But they are afraid and their exodus continues nevertheless…”

Christians around the world pray for kidnapped Orthodox archbishops (Various) One full month has passed since the kidnapping of Syriac Orthodox Metropolitan Yohanna Ibrahim and Greek Orthodox Metropolitan Boulos Yazigi, archbishops of Aleppo. From America to Amman, from India to the Vatican, — and, of course, in Aleppo itself — Christians join in prayer for the their safety and return…

Syrian Orthodox archbishop speaks on the situation of Christians in Syria (AINA) On Saturday, 18 May, Syrian Orthodox Archbishop Eustatius Matta Roham met activists of the newly formed European Christian Relief Organization (ECRO) in Munich, where he came to visit the White Fathers and other Catholic organizations asking for support for the Syriac Christians — such as Assyrean and Chaldean Christians. The archbishop was accompanied by the Syrian Orthodox Bishop Selwanos of Homs, who reported on the tragic situation of the displaced Christians in his city…

Turkey foils alleged attacks on Syrian refugees (Daily Star Lebanon) A Turkish official says authorities have detained six people suspected of plotting attacks against Syrian refugee camps near the Syrian border. Celalettin Lekesiz, the governor for border province of Hatay, said Wednesday the suspects were allegedly planning to bomb camps and kidnap refugees. Some 200,000 Syrian refugees are registered in Turkey…

Archbishop Chullikatt speaks on the scourge of human trafficking (Vatican Radio) “Trafficking in persons constitutes a shameful crime against human dignity and a grave violation of fundamental human rights. Those who commit such crimes debase themselves and poison human solidarity,” said Archbishop Francis Chullikatt, permanent observer of the Holy See to the United Nations, in a speech before the U.N…



Tags: Iraq Refugees Middle East Christians Syrian Civil War human trafficking

17 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Students attend class at St. Jean Baptiste De La Salle Catholic School in Addis Ababa. (photo: Peter Lemieux)

As the school year enters graduation season, people around the world celebrate academic achievement and students prepare to embark on a new chapter of their lives.

In the November 2012 issue of ONE, Peter Lemieux reported on educational institutions renowned for their high levels of achievement — Ethiopia’s Catholic schools:

By almost every measure, Ethiopia’s Catholic schools offer a first-rate education. The most obvious of indicators, results on the national university entrance exam, offer clear evidence.

On last year’s exam, more than half of the country’s 15 Catholic high schools boasted a 100 percent passing rate. The lowest passing rate among them was a respectable 92.4 percent.

“That means almost all the students succeed to study in university,” says Argaw Fantu, head of the education unit for the Ethiopian Catholic Secretariat.

Ethiopia’s Catholic schools enjoy many advantages, not least of which is the collective expertise inherited from the church’s long history of running first-rate schools around the world.

“Take our Christian Brothers,” says Mr. Aregay. “This is a congregation with 350 years of tradition working in 81 countries. Obviously, we inherit all those traditions from such a sophisticated and worldwide congregation working in the educational arena. And that holds true for other congregations — Don Bosco, Salesians, Daughters of Charity and others. That automatically gives us an advantage.”

Follow the link to read more about Ethiopians Making the Grade!



Tags: Ethiopia Education Catholic Schools

17 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




In this video, Al Jazeera's Omar al Saleh reports on a series of bombings that have killed at least 26 people in Kirkuk and Baghdad, among other Iraqi cities. In televised remarks, Nouri al Maliki, Iraqi prime minister, attributed the attacks to “sectarian hatred.” (video: Al Jazeera)

Sectarianism in Iraq stoked by Syrian war (Washington Post) A recent tide of sectarian tensions that erupted into the worst violence seen in Iraq in five years is testing the government of Prime Minister Nouri al Maliki, whose ability to contain the crisis could hinge on a conflict raging beyond his control in Syria. The prospect of a regional power shift driven by the bloody civil war next door, where a mostly Sunni rebel movement is struggling to topple the Shiite-dominated regime, has emboldened Iraq’s Sunni minority to challenge its own Shiite government and amplified fears within Maliki’s administration that Iraq may soon be swept up in a spillover war…

Syria begins to break apart under the pressure of war (New York Times) The black flag of jihad flies over much of northern Syria. In the center of the country, pro-government militias and Hezbollah fighters battle those who threaten their communities. In the northeast, the Kurds have effectively carved out an autonomous zone. After more than two years of conflict, Syria is breaking up. A constellation of armed groups battling to advance their own agendas is effectively creating the outlines of separate armed fiefs. As the war expands in scope and brutality, its biggest casualty appears to be the integrity of the Syrian state…

U.N. chief: Hold Syrian peace talks soon (Daily Star Lebanon) A proposed international conference to try to stop Syria’s civil war should be held as soon as possible, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said on Friday, but no date has yet been agreed for a meeting that appears to face growing obstacles. A rising death toll, new reports of atrocities by both sides, suspicion that chemical arms may have been used and the absence of prospects for a military solution have all pushed Washington and Moscow to agree to convene the conference. “We should not lose the momentum,” Ban said of the proposal to bring the Syrian government and opposition representatives to the conference table…

In Serbia, patriarch and president meet and urge unity (b92) Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Irinej and President Tomislav Nikolic met on Monday and urged “absolute unity and responsibility … in the search for a solution to the Kosovo and Metohija issue.” Nikolic underscored that the patriarch and himself agreed in everything, adding that it is not easy to decide on behalf of the nation just as it is not easy to decide on behalf of the church. “Still, it is much better when there is unity among those who make decisions on behalf of the people and those who make such decisions on behalf of the church,” the president said…



Tags: Iraq Syrian Civil War United Nations Serbian Orthodox Church Serbia

16 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




A Free Syrian Army fighter throws an improvised hand grenade toward forces loyal to Syria’s President Bashar al Assad in Deir al Zor on 15 May. (photo: CNS/Khalil Ashawi, Reuters)

Syrian opposition forces plunder and destroy ancient monastery (Pravoslavie.ru) Armed extremists fighting on the side of the Syrian opposition have attacked the ancient Orthodox Monastery of the Holy Prophet Elias near the town of Al Qusayr, situated about 12 miles from the Syrian-Lebanese border, reports the ITAR-TASS agency with a reference to the Syrian state news agency. The gunmen stole church vessels, blew up the bell tower and destroyed the chancel and the font, the monastery’s Abbot Gadir Ibrahim reported on Saturday…

Jordanian Christians hold a silent march to pray for kidnapped Syrian bishops (Fides) On Tuesday, 21 May, Christians in Amman will hold a candle-lit silent march to pray for the release of the two bishops of Aleppo, Syriac Orthodox Mar Gregorios Yohanna Ibrahim and Greek Orthodox Boulos al Yazigi, who have been in the hands of unknown kidnappers for a month…

Turkey seeks assistance with Syrian refugees (Washington Post) Facing one of the world’s largest refugee crises in decades, Turkish officials are urgently appealing for international financial assistance and calling on wealthy nations, particularly the United States and the countries of Europe, to start accepting large numbers of Syrian refugees. The stance marks a shift for the Turkish government, which had long insisted that Ankara would manage and pay for the refugee crisis on its own as a matter of national pride. But with the cost to Turkey hitting $1.5 billion, an estimated 400,000 refugees in the country and a total of 1 million expected by the end of the year, pressure is building. Turkey is even willing to organize an airlift, Ankara officials said, but no country seems eager to receive the refugees…

Baghdad market attacks in north kill 17 (Daily Star Lebanon) At least 17 people were killed by bombs in markets in Baghdad and attacks in northern Iraq on Thursday, police said, adding to a surge of sectarian-tinged violence in the past four weeks. Attacks on Sunni and Shiite mosques, security forces and tribal leaders have mushroomed since security forces raided a Sunni protest camp near Kirkuk a month ago, igniting clashes and fuelling worries of a slide back into all-out sectarian war. Iraq has grown more volatile as the civil war in neighbouring Syria strains fragile relations between Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Tensions are now at their highest point since the last United States troops pulled out at the end of 2011…

At a Jerusalem parlor, centuries of pilgrim tattoos (The Times of Israel) Orthodox Christians visiting the Holy Land often return home with more than just spiritual memories. Many drop by a centuries-old tattoo parlor in Jerusalem’s Old City, inking themselves with a permanent reminder not only of their pilgrimage but also of devotion to their faith. The same Jerusalem family has been tattooing pilgrims with Crosses and other religious symbols for hundreds of years, testament to the importance of the ancient ritual. While Catholics can get a written certificate of their pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Orthodox Christians opt for a tattoo, a permanent reminder of their visit…



Tags: Iraq Refugees Jerusalem Syrian Civil War Refugee Camps

15 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




In an unprecedented event on 12 May 2013, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia celebrated the Divine Liturgy in Beijing before a gathering of over 500 Orthodox Christians.
(photo: The Russian Orthodox Church)


Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia is presently engaged in a visit of historic proportions. On 10 May, the Russian Orthodox Church head arrived in China. Vatican Insider reports:

The overture to Patriarch Kirill’s official visit to China marked an important moment in relations between China and the Orthodox Church. Yesterday, in the Great Hall of the People, the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church had the privilege of meeting Chinese President, Xi Jinping. “You are the first patriarch of Moscow and the first supreme religious leader from Russia to visit our country,” Xi told Kirill, presenting this unprecedented event as a “clear sign of the strength and high level of relations between China and Russia.” Russian news agency RIA Novosti reported that during their conversation, Kirill emphasised the “special relationship that has blossomed between Russia and China in recent years.”

Such a visit can include a great many milestones. Among them is the first Divine Liturgy celebrated by a Russian Orthodox Patriarch in China. According to the Voice of Russia:

More than 500 Orthodox believers attended the liturgy held in the Russian embassy, among them Russians living and working in China and the so-called Albazins — descendants of Russian Cossacks who settled in Beijing in the late 18th century.

His Holiness reminded the worshipers that the Russian Orthodox Church in China is more than three centuries old. …

Russian Ambassador to Beijing Andrei Denisov believes that the visit to China by Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia will open up new opportunities for the local Orthodox community.

For more details and photographs, visit the site of the Russian Orthodox Church’s Department for External Church Relations.



Tags: Unity Russian Orthodox Church Orthodox Dialogue Patriarch Kirill

15 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




In this 2010 photo, Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Irinej arrives to celebrate a liturgy in Belgrade, Serbia, following his election. (photo: /Ivan Milutinovic, Reuters)

Serbian Orthodox Church likely to back government on Kosovo deal (Eurasia Review) At its forthcoming annual congress, the Serbian Orthodox Church is expected to discuss the EU-brokered deal with Kosovo and support the government on the issue, experts believe. Serbian Orthodox Church leaders will decide the religious body’s stance on Kosovo this month at the annual session of its governing body, the Holy Synod, predicted Zivica Tucic, an expert on religion in Serbia. “The Church will try to find an acceptable solution for the Kosovo issue,” Tucic told BIRN. Tucic said that one of the signs suggesting that the church would back the government on the issue was the reaction of church leader Patriarch Irinej to the criticism of the deal from some bishops…

Human Rights Watch alleges rebel atrocities in Syria (Los Angeles Times) Gruesome video footage purportedly showing a Syrian rebel commander mutilating the corpse of a dead soldier while shouting sectarian insults has drawn condemnation from Human Rights Watch and focused renewed attention on battlefield atrocities in Syria. The video appears to be further dramatic evidence of how Syria’s more than two-year civil war may be disintegrating into a sectarian bloodbath…

Israeli police attack Coptic Orthodox bishop in Jerusalem (Ahram Online) Israeli newspaper Maariv published a video clip on Monday showing an attack by Israeli police on Coptic Orthodox Bishop Anthasius of Ramallah in Jerusalem during Easter celebrations last week. In an interview with the newspaper, Anthasius said that Israeli police had attacked him in the street after he had tried to pass through an Israeli military checkpoint. In the video, the 84-year-old bishop can be seen being attacked by policemen. “They treated me like a dog,” the bishop told the Israeli newspaper. Israeli police subsequently issued a formal apology to both Egypt and Bishop Anthasius for last week’s incident…

Officials say Iraq bombings kill 10, wound 21 (Daily Star Lebanon) Bombings in Iraq, including two car bombs in the northern city of Kirkuk, killed 10 people and wounded 21 others on Wednesday, security and medical officials said. The first bombing in Kirkuk was the deadliest of the attacks, killing eight people and wounding eight, while a second car bomb exploded nearby, wounding seven more, officials said. Violence in Iraq has fallen from its peak in 2006 and 2007, but attacks remain common, killing more than 200 people in each of the first four months of this year…

Return to Iqrit: the rebirth of a Palestinian village (The Guardian) On a breezy hilltop in sight of the Lebanese border, a village last populated 65 years ago is being reclaimed from the dead for the living. Vegetables and herbs have been planted amid the rubble; a couple of donkeys graze on spring grass; traditional food is cooked and eaten in a makeshift structure next to the Church of Our Lady, where mass is celebrated for up to 200 worshippers on the first Saturday of every month. This is Iqrit, a Palestinian Christian village in northern Galilee, whose inhabitants left in the bitter war that followed the declaration of the state of Israel in 1948, and who have never been permitted to return to their land and razed homes. But in recent months, a group of young men, grandsons of Iqrit’s original residents, have moved back in an attempt to reclaim and rebuild the village…



Tags: Iraq Syrian Civil War Palestine Coptic Orthodox Church Serbian Orthodox Church

10 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Roma musicians perform during a Roma funeral in Hodasz, Hungary. The majority of European Roma, commonly called “gypsies,” is Christian, with a strong representation, particularly in eastern Slovakia, of Greek Catholic or Orthodox. (photo: Balazs Gardi/VII Network)

Today, The New York Times ran an article on Roma integration into the Slovakian school system, drawing a parallel to the United States's own history of overcoming segregation:

Gazing out his window during morning recess on his first day at work, the principal of an elementary school here, Jaroslav Valastiak, was caught up short: all the children playing in the asphalt-covered yard were white, a strikingly monochromatic scene at a school where a majority of pupils are dark-skinned Roma.

Lunchtime brought another shock. The school canteen served only white children, with Roma pupils left outside with bagged rations, instead of hot food. Classes were also divided, officially on the basis of academic aptitude, but in a manner that ended up grouping students along rigid ethnic lines.

“The segregation here was as obvious as fireworks,” Mr. Valastiak said.

The 59-year-old principal has spent the past year trying to break down barriers, both physical and mental, in a painful struggle for integration that some here say echoes that of the United States more than a half-century ago.

“The situation in Slovakia now is exactly the same as it was in the United States,” said Peter Pollak, a Roma member of Parliament and the government’s plenipotentiary for Roma communities, who recently visited the United States to learn about its battles over segregated schooling and other entrenched barriers to equality.

In a continent faced with an economic crisis, soaring unemployment and bursts of nationalist populism, the elementary school here in eastern Slovakia is a microcosm of one of Europe’s biggest challenges: how to keep old demons of ethnic scapegoating at bay and somehow bring its most disadvantaged and fastest growing minority into the mainstream.

You can read the rest here.

ONE has been sharing stories of the Roma of Eastern Europe for years. To learn more about the Roma of Slovakia, see Jacqueline Ruyak's Those Who Remain Behind. Ms. Ruyak also reported on the Roma of Hungary in Our Town, which included a sidebar on the progress of anti-discrimination legislation in Eastern Europe at the time of its publication.



Tags: Cultural Identity Hungary Slovakia Roma

10 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Tawadros II of Alexandria, pope and patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church, and Pope Francis shake hands after exchanging gifts during a private audience in the pontiff’s library at the Vatican on 10 May. The pope told the Coptic leader that Christians are united in “ecumenism of suffering.” If you would like to learn more about Egypt’s largest Christian community, we profiled the Coptic Orthodox Church in the November 2005 issue of ONE. (photo: CNS/Andreas Solaro, pool via Reuters)

Pope Francis meets Coptic Orthodox Pope Tawadros II (VIS) The visit of Tawadros II of Alexandria, pope and patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church, “strengthens the bonds of friendship and brotherhood that already exist between the See of Peter and the See of Mark, heir to an inestimable heritage of martyrs, theologians, holy monks and faithful disciples of Christ, who have borne witness to the Gospel from generation to generation, often in situations of great adversity,” said Pope Francis this morning. The pontiff remarked on the memorable meeting that took place, 40 years ago, between the predecessors of both, Pope Paul VI and Pope Shenouda III, which united them “in an embrace of peace and fraternity, after centuries of mutual distance”…

Syrian refugees: your stories (The Guardian) GuardianWitness, a program seeking ground-level media from people the world over, has been running for nearly a month — including a section dedicated to the stories of Syrian refugees. Caroline Bannock, a coordinator for the program, notes: “It’s not an easy situation to document and many refugees can’t be identified, in case it puts family, left behind in Syria, in jeopardy. However, people who can, do want us to see what the situation is like for them and NGOs, aid agencies and individuals have been sharing images, text and video — when it’s safe to do so. … We have been very moved by the content that has been shared with us — so please do go and look at it, if you haven’t already…”

Saturday an international day of prayer for peace (Fides) On Saturday, 11 May, Syrian Christians of all churches and ecclesial communities have organized a day of prayer to “pray to God to grant mercy to Syria and to put an end to the violence.” The appeal to pray for Syria has been extended to Christians throughout the world. “It is too risky to move in combat areas. We will have to limit ourselves to local meetings throughout the country, in homes, in meeting places and in churches,” said the text of the appeal, published on the internet. There are four prayer intentions: the return of peace, the liberation of all hostages, the care of children traumatized by war and humanitarian relief to all refugees…

For first time, Israeli police protect women praying at Western Wall (Washington Post) Israeli police with metal barriers and human chains on Friday held back thousands of ultra-Orthodox protesters who tried to prevent a Jewish women’s group from praying at a key holy site, the first time police have come down on the side of the women and not the protesters. The switch followed a court order backing the right of the women to pray at the Western Wall in the Old City with practices Orthodox Jews insist are the role of men alone…

Patriarch Kirill begins visit to China (Asianews.it) Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill arrived today in Beijing, the first leg of his official visit to China, which ends 15 June. In the Chinese capital, “The head of the Russian Orthodox Church will meet with government leaders in China, leaders of religious groups, and also with the Chinese officials responsible for religious affairs,” the Patriarchate Press Service said…



Tags: Pope Francis Refugees Syrian Civil War Coptic Orthodox Church Roma

8 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




Archbishop Francis A. Chullikatt, permanent observer of the Holy See to the United Nations, prays for the safety of Syriac Orthodox Metropolitan Gregorios Yohanna and Greek Orthodox Metropolitan Paul during Mass at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York on 2 May. (photo: CNS/Gregory A. Shemitz)

Syrian bishops still missing after kidnapping (NPR) As orthodox Christians across the world celebrated a late Easter this year, Christian communities in Syria and neighboring Lebanon postponed all celebrations. Instead, they gathered in churches only to pray for the safe return of two bishops kidnapped outside of Aleppo last month. While their whereabouts are still unknown, the Syrian opposition and the Assad regime continue to trade blame for the abduction the Syriac Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Archbishops of Aleppo. We speak to the Syriac Orthodox bishop of Beirut and his congregation about how the kidnappings have marred the traditionally celebratory time of year…

Coptic Orthodox pope and Pope Francis to hold first meeting in 40 years (VIS) From 9 to 13 May, Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria, patriarch of the See of St. Mark and head of the Coptic Orthodox Church, will visit Rome to meet with Pope Francis on Friday. Pope Tawadros’ predecessor, Pope Shenouda III, met with Pope Paul VI in the Vatican 40 years ago in May of 1973. On that occasion, the pope and the Coptic Orthodox patriarch signed an important Christological declaration in common and initiated bilateral ecumenical dialogue between the two churches…

Three suspects arrested over Armenian church shooting (Tert.am) The Istanbul police have jailed three men on suspicion of opening gunfire near an Armenian church. One of the detainees is reported to be an ethnic Armenian. According to the Turkish website Samanyoluhaber, the men fired seven shots near the St. Hovhannes church during a liturgy…

Deadly attacks strike northern Iraq (Al Jazeera) A shooting and two car bombs in Iraq have left at least two people dead and wounded 26 in the western and northern parts of the country, officials have said. Hospital officials confirmed the casualty figures. All officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they are not authorised to speak to the media. Wednesday’s attacks follow shootings and a bombing which killed seven people in Iraq on Tuesday…

Ethiopian commuters bid farewell to archbishop memorial statue (AllAfrica.com) The statue of Ethiopian Orthodox Archbishop Abune Petros, erected in the archbishop’s memory in 1941, moved to its temporary location on Friday, 2 May 2013. The decision to relocate the statue came after the Ethiopian Railway Corporation began the construction of the 20-mile Addis Light Rail Transit project…



Tags: Syria Iraq Violence against Christians Orthodox human trafficking

7 May 2013
J.D. Conor Mauro




In this August 2012 photo, Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill and Polish Archbishop Jozef Michalik, president of the Catholic bishops’ conference of Poland, sign a joint message of reconciliation during ceremony at Royal Castle in Warsaw. (photo: CNS/Kacper Pempel, Reuters)

Patriarch Kirill has high hopes for unity with the Catholic Church (Interfax) “We are open to dialogue, cooperation and development of such interaction, and we have no indication that the incumbent Pope is not open to the same,” said Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill. “The time of our disorder and confusion in assessing socially important problems should end,” he said…

U.N. investigator suggests Syrian rebels may have used chemical weapons (Christian Science Monitor) The leader of the United Nations investigation into possible chemical weapon use in Syria said yesterday that witness and victim testimonies indicate that Syrian rebels likely used chemical weapons such as the nerve gas sarin. The commission she leads, however, tempered her comments with a statement today announcing that it had not yet reached “conclusive findings.” Rebel forces denied the claims…

Palestinian Christians struggle under occupation (Al Monitor) “To be a Christian from the land of Jesus Christ is a blessing that not many can claim to share. But this blessing brings with it a daily struggle to preserve our traditions and uphold Christian practices. Faith has not disappeared, hope still guides our lives, but the lack of response to our plight makes many in our community wonder whether the world really cares about us.” Father Johnny Abu Khalil, a Catholic priest from Nablus, recounts the challenges faced by Palestinian Christians…

No justice for Christian victims of Orissa massacres (Fides) Five years after the anti-Christian massacres that shocked Kandhamal district in the Indian state of Orissa, justice remains unserved. In the “pogrom” of 2008, over 400 villages were “cleansed” of all Christians. More than 5,600 houses and 296 churches were burned. There were many human casualties, and 56,000 men, women and children became homeless. As Catholic activist John Dayal reports to Fides, the investigation was carried out late and in a superficial manner…

Gunman attacks Armenian church in Istanbul (panorama.am) An unknown assailant opened fire into the air outside a small Armenian church in Istanbul on Sunday while an Orthodox sermon was being held inside, according to Turkish media…

U.N. peacekeepers seized near Syrian border (Al Jazeera) Four United Nations peacekeepers are being held in the ceasefire line between Syria and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, where neither Israeli nor Syrian forces can operate. Josephine Guerrero, spokeswoman for the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), said on Tuesday the four were “detained today by an unidentified armed group while they were patrolling” near Al Jamlah in the so-called Area of Limitation…



Tags: Middle East Christians Armenia United Nations Palestinians Patriarch Kirill





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