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September, 2019
Volume 45, Number 3
  
22 November 2016
Greg Kandra




In this image from 18 November, a boy comforts a child waiting for medical treatment at a makeshift hospital in Douma, Syria. The U.N. reports health services in Syria have been devastated by the ongoing conflict in the country. (photo: Abd Doumany/AFP/Getty Images)

UN: Syria health services ‘devastated’ by war (VOA) Top United Nations aid officials warned Monday that health care services in Syria have been devastated by bombings and the nearly six-year-old conflict. “Over half the country’s public hospitals and primary health care centers are either closed or only partially functioning,” the World Health Organization’s representative in Syria, Elizabeth Hoff, told a meeting of the U.N. Security Council via a video link from Damascus. “Almost two-thirds of all health professionals have left the country; domestic production of medicines has dropped by two-thirds and vaccination coverage rates have dropped by half,” she said...

U.S. strike destroys bridge, restricts ISIS (Reuters) U.S. forces backing Iraqi troops retaking Mosul from Islamic State carried out an air strike on a bridge spanning the Tigris river, restricting militant movements between western and eastern parts of the city, a U.S. official said on Tuesday...

In Jordan, a Syrian refugee camp withers (Reuters) Mohammad Othman’s bicycle route through the marketplace in the Syrian refugee camp of Zaatari was once a struggle against a tide of people. Now it’s an easy ride. So many residents have left for the West, or been forced back to Syria by Jordanian authorities, that Zaatari, once the fastest-growing refugee camp in the Middle East, has gone quiet...

Chaldean bishop: ‘Speak up about Middle Eastern Christians’ (CUA.edu) The perilous state of Christianity in the Middle East was the topic of discussion on 17 November as Chaldean Bishop Francis Y. Kalabat, eparch of the Chaldean Catholic Diocese of Detroit, addressed members of the Catholic University community. Speaking as part of a panel discussion organized by the School of Theology and Religious Studies (STRS), Bishop Kalabat explained the complexities of keeping Christianity alive in the Middle East, and the struggles of Christians who live there...

Coptic patriarch visits Kuwait (Herald Malaysia) The Patriarch Ibrahim Isaac, the spiritual leader of the Catholic Copts, the largest Egyptian Catholic community, made his first pastoral visit to Kuwait last week. Upon arriving at the airport, the patriarch said he was very happy to visit the country for the first time. “Thousands of different nationalities and faiths live in this state, known for its religious tolerance,” he said. “The Egyptian community is very well received in Kuwait. For many of them, it is a second home country...”

Awakening to the religious divide in Kerala (Asia Times) ”What was it like growing up? Did you ever sense a divide between the Muslims and Hindus?” My editorial assistant, a Kashmiri Pundit woman half my age, wanted to know. The truth is I had no sense of religion as I grew up. In Avadi, the ordnance factory township in southern India, religion took a backseat to national spirit. Every morning at school we took a pledge: “India is my country and all Indians are my brothers and sisters...”



21 November 2016
Greg Kandra




An event organized by the University of Edinburgh asked people around the world to light candles as a show of solidarity with the war-torn city of Aleppo. Over the weekend, the city was pounded by what has been described as the “heaviest bombardment” since the war began.
(video: Rome Reports)


Aleppo pounded by ‘heaviest bombardment’ since war began (CNN) Syrian regime forces pounded eastern Aleppo with airstrikes for a sixth straight day Sunday, bringing the death toll to almost 300 in the most intense bombing since the war began five years ago, rescuers say. Among the latest reported violence: a suspected chemical attack that killed four children and their parents. Two activist groups — the UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human rights and Aleppo Media Center — said a barrage of barrel bombs struck their neighborhood, al-Sakhour...

Civilian exodus slows Iraq’s push to take control of Mosul (AP) Iraqi troops on Sunday fortified their positions in Mosul neighborhoods retaken from ISIS as their advance toward the city center was slowed by sniper fire and suicide bombings, as well as concern over the safety of civilians. The troops laid siege Sunday to the Al-Zohour neighborhood, about 5 miles from the city center. The arrival of the troops at the neighborhood’s fringes prompted hundreds of civilians to emerge from their homes waving white flags. The special forces later drove ISIS from two other neighborhoods...

Salesians remain in Syria, promoting reconciliation and forgiveness (CNA) Father Alejandro León is a Salesian missionary who has lived more than 13 years in the Middle East, and in Syria since 2011 — precisely when its civil war began. He has said that being there during the war is “a sign of mercy and the love of God,” even though it involves risking his own life and often being close to death...

Patriarch Kirill: ‘Western laws clash with moral nature of man’ (RT) In an exclusive interview with RT, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Kirill, shared his ideas on the difficult situations of Christians in the Middle East, the US presidential election, and European multiculturalism...

Indian bishops express sorrow over victims of train crash (Vatican Radio) “We are very saddened by this tragic incident,” says Bishop Theodore Mascarenhas, secretary general of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference (CBCI) commenting on Sunday’s train disaster near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. The Indore-Patna train early Sunday Morning, derailed, perhaps due to a crack in the rails, killing at least 143 and injuring around 180...

At close of Year of Mercy, Pope issues new Apostolic Letter on mercy (Vatican Radio) Although the Extraordinary Jubilee Year has concluded, we are still living in a “time of mercy.” That was the message of Pope Francis in a lengthy Apostolic Letter, entitled Misericordia et misera, (“Mercy and Misery”), issued on Monday following the close of the Year of Mercy...

Christian refugees: When success means just being seen and heard and remembered (Aleteia) In Amman, we met Christian refugees from Iraq, and among them were doctors, and lawyers, and highly-trained professionals who, afforded a safe place to live, had discovered that a refugee’s reality is one stripped of a sense of purpose. To be together with their families, away from the threats of the murderous Islamic State is a blessing, to be sure, but the days can hang heavy, and you can lose sight of yourself — and of hope — when you have no way to work at your life’s calling...



18 November 2016
Greg Kandra




People inspect damage caused by an airstrike near Idlib, Syria, on 17 November.
(photo: CNS/Ammar Abdullah, Reuters)


U.N. says Aleppo faces ‘bleak moment’ (Reuters) The besieged population of eastern Aleppo faces a “very bleak moment” with no food or medical supplies, winter approaching, and an increasingly fierce attack by Syrian and allied forces, U.N. humanitarian adviser Jan Egeland said on Friday. Although Russia and rebel groups both sounded positive about a U.N. humanitarian plan to get supplies in and the sick and wounded out of eastern Aleppo, neither has yet given final approval, he said...

Satellite images reveal damage to Mosul (BBC) Satellite images of Mosul have revealed extensive damage to the city’s buildings, infrastructure and archaeological sites following more than two years of occupation by so-called Islamic State (ISIS). The imagery, released by US geopolitical intelligence company Stratfor, shows how the jihadists have destroyed mosques, government buildings and historical areas. It also reveals damage caused by coalition airstrikes...

Turkey removes only Christian co-mayor (Fides) Among the victims of the “purges” wanted by the Turkish government apparatus is Februniye Akyol, the first Assyrian Christian to be elected co-mayor in Turkey, in the city of Merdin. Both she and the other co-mayor, the Kurdish Ahmet Turk, were removed and replaced with a “Qayyum” appointed by the central government...

Pope prays for peace with leader of Assyrian Church of the East (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis spoke on Thursday of the suffering of innocent victims caught up in the Syrian and Iraqi conflicts, saying that nothing can justify such terrible violence. His words came as he met with the head of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Gewargis III, who was making his first visit to the Vatican since being elected as Catholicos-Patriarch in September last year...

U.N. joins efforts to help Ethiopian refugees (Andalou Agency) The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) signed an agreement in the capital Addis Ababa Friday to further strengthen their cooperation to meet the growing needs of refugees and their host communities in Ethiopia. UNHCR’s Clementine Nkweta-Salami and UNICEF’s Gillian Mellsop signed the agreement, which outlines key areas of collaboration in child protection, education, health and nutrition, as well as water, sanitation and hygiene. The agreement lasts until 2020...



17 November 2016
Greg Kandra




Iraqi civilians who fled Mosul wait for aid packages at the Khazir refugee camp on 16 November 2016. Bad weather has slowed the advance of troops battling to retake Mosul from ISIS.
(photo: Feriq Ferec/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)


Bad weather slowing advance inside Mosul (BBC) Iraqi forces have paused their advance into Mosul due to bad weather, a month after launching an offensive to retake the city from so-called Islamic State. A general said poor visibility was limiting the ability of aircraft to provide cover, adding that troops would secure eastern areas they had entered...

Meetings held between Lebanon’s new president and heads of churches (Fides) Yesterday, newly elected President Michel Aoun received the delegation of the Greek-Melkite Church, led by Patriarch Gregoire III Laham, and that of the Syrian Catholic Church, led by Patriarch Ignace Youssif III Younan...

President Barzani: Kurdistan to be multiethnic and multireligious (Fides) The Kurdish Peshmerga troops will not withdraw from lands they reclaimed from ISIS in the military campaign for the liberation of Mosul, explaining that this was agreed with the United States and Iraqi government. This is what Masud Barzani, President of the Autonomous Region of Iraqi Kurdistan said on Wednesday, 16 November, meeting the local media in Bashiqa, the city of Nineveh province liberated from the Peshmerga in the first week of November...

Bishops urged to bring more attention to Christian persecution in Middle East (CNS) Maronite Bishop Gregory J. Mansour called on the bishops of the United States to bring wider attention to the persecution of Christians in the Middle East to their parishes and political leaders. Addressing the fall general assembly of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops on 15 November, the Maronite leader said he hoped that the new four-year strategic plan adopted by the conference earlier in the day would incorporate a robust advocacy for religious freedom in the rest of the world...

In Ukraine, mothers search for disappeared sons (Al Jazeera) Olena Dovhopola’s son, 31-year-old Serhiy, went missing in September 2014, just months into the war in Ukraine. Serving in the Ukrainian army, Serhiy went missing after fierce clashes with separatist rebels in the east of the county. He is one of an estimated 1,000 people, both soldiers and civilians, who have been declared missing — presumed dead or captured — since the beginning of the conflict in March 2014...

New research project looks refugee artisans (Phys.org) The impact of forced displacement on Syria’s traditional crafts and cultural heritage, and the people directly involved in it, is to be analysed in a new research project. Academics from the University of Plymouth will study the industries that have survived among refugee communities forcibly displaced to the neighboring state of Jordan since 2011...



16 November 2016
Greg Kandra




Wreckage of ancient artifacts, destroyed by ISIS, is seen in Nimrud in Mosul’s southeast, which was taken back by the Iraqi army three days ago. The ancient city, which contained the tombs of many Assyrian kings, is now ruined after the occupation of ISIS. It is no longer even possible to see a single remaining statue in the city, whose history has been erased.
(photo: Idris Okuducu/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)


Troops in Iraq find traps, kids hurt, heritage destroyed (AP) Iraqi special forces pushed deeper into the northern city of Mosul on Wednesday, backed by U.S.-led airstrikes but under attack by rockets and suicide bombers from the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Troops have established a foothold in the city’s east, and earlier in the day, drove northward into the Tahrir neighborhood, where families left their houses to flee the fighting. Mortars from ISIS-held territory wounded at least five children trying to flee the fighting, who were evacuated by the troops...

Russia deploys aircraft carrier in new Syria offensive (The Independent) Russia has begun a major military campaign on rebel-held parts of Syria after the country’s biggest surface deployment since the Cold War docked at a naval base on the Syrian coast...

Kerala church offers money to those in need during financial crisis (Indian Express) With the PM’s demonetization announcement that sent shock ripples throughout the country, people have been running amok wanting to exchange the older currency with the new in-circulation Rs 2,000, or better yet a whole bunch of Rs 100 notes. Others have been waiting in long queues, starting from the wee hours of the morning till late night. In Kerala, however, a church has come to help the lesser privileged people in an unusual way. St Martin De Porres church in Ernakulam district in Kerala announced that it would give money out of their offertory box to people who are in dire need of the money, and expect nothing in return...

Communist leader in India asks Church for support (India-Christian Activist Network) At a ceremony to mark the conclusion of the Jubilee Year of Mercy, the communist leader of the southern Indian state of Kerala asked the church to help support his government’s welfare programs. Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan made the appeal while speaking at the 12 November function in the largely Christian town of Kottyam. “I don’t have any problem in getting the church to support us in these areas,” he said...

Walking with pilgrims to Ethiopia’s ‘New Jerusalem’ (CNN) From all corners of a nation they come, often walking for hundreds of miles barefoot: Ethiopian Orthodox Christians on a once-in-a-lifetime journey. Their destination is Lalibela in the north of Ethiopia. A town of approximately 20,000 people, Lalibela’s population swells five-fold in the first days of January, pilgrims converging to celebrate Genna (or Ledet) — Christmas according to the Ethiopian calendar...

Rare icon replica visiting Scranton (Scranton Times-Tribune) A rare replica of the Mary the Helper of Mothers icon is spending the month at St. Mary’s Byzantine Catholic Church in Scranton and the faithful are invited to see it. An icon in the Orthodox faith is a religious image or painting intended to give its viewer a spiritual experience. This image of the Blessed Mother, clothed and surrounded in gold and holding the infant Jesus, is meant to help women facing challenges conceiving, difficult pregnancies or hard childbirths, said St. Mary’s pastor, the Rev. Leonard A. Martin, S.J....



15 November 2016
Greg Kandra




Italian Cardinal-designate Mario Zenari has been nuncio to Syria since 2008. He will be one of 17 new cardinals consecrated by Pope Francis at a Vatican consistory on Saturday 19 November. The Vatican’s Secretary of State says this is a sign of the Pope’s closeness to the people of Syria.
(photo: CNS/Massimiliano Migliorato, Catholic Press Photo)


Humanitarian agencies call to protect civilians in Mosul (Vatican Radio) Innocent civilians in the embattled city of Mosul are being caught in the crossfire and isolated from the outside world. The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) in Iraq is calling for greater protection of civilians trapped inside of Mosul. Since the military offensive began on 17 October to recapture city from ISIS, more than 50,000 people have fled. The number of displaced civilians has increased drastically over the past week, totaling more than 20,000 compared to just 6,000 the previous week...

Syria’s new cardinal a sign of Pope’s closeness (CNA) Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro Parolin has said that Francis’ decision to give a red hat to the longtime papal envoy to Syria is a sign of the Pope’s closeness to the Church and people on the ground amid the country’s dire situation...

Muslim attacks on Christians in Egypt on the rise (The Independent) Attacks against Christians have intensified as mistrust between Christians and Muslims deepens. Today, community leaders and human rights activists say the smallest of matters are setting off violence, often pitting neighbor against neighbor. At a time when President Abdel Fatah al-Sissi’s government is jailing its opponents and struggling to revive a sinking economy, the violence adds a new layer of populist frustration: Christians strongly supported Sissi’s rise, expecting him to protect them after the former army general led a coup that toppled the Islamists...

Jewish-Muslim alliance formed against anti-Semitism, Islamophobia (RNS) The day after president-elect Donald Trump appointed a man accused of anti-Semitism and Islamophobia as his chief strategist, two of the nation’s largest Jewish and Muslim advocacy groups formed an unprecedented partnership to fight bigotry...

Turkey rebuilds mosques in Gaza (Andalou Agency) Turkey’s Religious Affairs Presidency Foundation has rebuilt nine mosques destroyed during Israel’s military onslaught on the blockaded Gaza Strip in 2014, an official statement said on Tuesday. The Religious Affairs Directorate announced in a statement the mosques in Gaza were now ready to be used by the Muslim community...

Icon reproduction enshrined in historic Chicago cathedral (OCA.org) His Grace, Bishop Paul and a number of clergy and faithful were present as a reproduction of the Wonderworking Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God was enshrined in Holy Trinity Cathedral in Chicago on Wednesday, 9 November 2016...



14 November 2016
Greg Kandra




The image above, from a 2015 BBC video, reportedly shows ISIS militants destroying some of the ruins of Nimrud in Iraq, near Mosul. Iraqi troops retook the town over the weekend.
(photo: BBC/AFP)


Iraqi troops enter town where ancient ruins were destroyed (ABC News) Iraqi troops entered a town south of Mosul on Sunday where Islamic State militants destroyed artifacts at a nearby ancient Assyrian archaeological site, while special forces fended off suicide bombers during a cautious advance into the northern city. The push into Nimrud was the most significant gain in several days for government forces, potentially opening up the area for teams to assess the damage done to the famed ruins just outside the town...

Syrian rebels reportedly losing Aleppo battle (AP) Syrian government forces regained control Saturday of areas they lost over the past two weeks to a rebel offensive on the edge of the northern city of Aleppo, ending a major attempt by insurgents to break the siege on eastern parts of the city, an activist group and pro-government media said...

Joint initiative between Vatican and Al Azhar to begin in 2017 (Fides) A coordination committee linked to the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and the Center for Dialogue of the University of Al Azhar, the most authoritative academic and theological center of Sunni Islam, has started the first joint initiative between the two institutions after the resumption of direct dialogue: a seminar study on problems related to the presence of religious communities in the context of civil society...

Syrian refugees regret move to Gaza (AP) Like millions of Syrians, Wareef Hamedo fled the civil war in his homeland in search of safety and security. But in a decision he now regrets, he chose to go to Gaza. Hamedo’s family is among 12 Syrian households that found refuge in Gaza after the civil war erupted in 2011 and are now trapped in the war-battered territory, ineligible for most social services granted to Palestinians but also unable to travel abroad...

Identity crisis at an Indian Catholic church (NPR) It’s a familiar battle in any immigrant community: The older generation fears extinction, while the young people rebel against stagnation. But to this church, this faith, that fear of loss is twofold. The Syro-Malabar community is Indian and Catholic in equal measure. Parents worry that if their children lose their faith, they will also lose an intrinsic part of their culture...



10 November 2016
Greg Kandra




Internally displaced children sit in a pickup truck 25 October near Mosul, Iraq. Iraq forces are closing in toward Mosul’s airport. (photo: CNS/Goran Tomasevic, Reuters)

Iraqi forces prepare push into Mosul (Reuters) Iraqi security forces are preparing to advance toward Mosul airport on the city’s southern edge to increase pressure on Islamic State militants fighting troops who breached their eastern defenses, officers said on Thursday...

U.S. Says it has killed 119 civilians in Iraq and Syria (The New York Times) The United States has killed 119 civilians in Iraq and Syria since it began military operations against the Islamic State there in 2014, military officials said Wednesday. In each case, the American military followed the proper procedures and it did not violate laws of armed conflict, officials said...

Syria’s Assad is ‘ready’ to cooperate with Donald Trump (The Independent) Embattled Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is “ready” to cooperate with the US President-elect Donald Trump, one of Mr Assad’s advisers has said. Speaking to National Public Radio on Thursday — just after Mr Trump’s seismic victory in the US general election — Bouthaina Shaaban said any collaboration on Syria’s almost six-year-long civil war will depend on “whether Mr. Trump’s policies meet expectations...”

Pope says the search for Christian unity is a top priority (Vatican Radio) Pope Francis revealed on Thursday that the search for Christian unity is one of his principle concerns, one that he prays may be shared by every baptized person. The Pope’s words came as he met in the Vatican with participants at a plenary session of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. The meeting, from 8 to 11 November is exploring the theme “What model of full communion?...”

Indian priest tries to preserve sacred music (New India Express) The Rev. Joseph Palackal is trying his best to preserve the memories and the melodies. He comes to Kerala every year to meet people who are able to capture the melodies of the Syriac songs. “But the time is running out,” he says. “Most of the stalwarts are losing their memory or passing away...”

Publishers participate in Coptic Book Fair (Fides) There are 37 publishing houses involved these days in “Coptic Book Fair,” underway until 22 November at the exhibition hall in St. Mark’s Cathedral in Cairo. The inauguration, which took place on Tuesday, 8 November, was attended by three Bishops of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate, including Anba Musa, in charge of the pastoral and cultural initiatives for young people...



9 November 2016
Greg Kandra




Raban Boutros Kassis, Syrian Orthodox Patriarchal Vicar of Aleppo, is recovering from gunshot wounds he received after being attacked in his car by a sniper. (photo: Fides)

Syrian Orthodox Patriarchal Vicar of Aleppo wounded (Malaysia Herald) Staring death in the face is an experience that can awaken the faith even in those who do not believe in God. For the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchal Vicar of Aleppo Raban Boutros Kassis, therefore, this sensation was all the more intense and today he says he feels a profound closeness to Christ. Two days ago, he miraculously escaped death after a sniper shot at him as he traveled by car from Homs to Aleppo...

Iraq reportedly suspends military operations near Mosul (Anadolu Agency) Iraq’s anti-terrorism agency has temporarily suspended military operations in the eastern part of the Daesh-held city of Mosul while stressing that Iraqi forces were not being withdrawn from the area, according to an Iraqi military source...

My Journey into Aleppo (The New York Times) I took these videos and photographs last week while on a bus tour of western Aleppo that was part of a government public relations offensive. There were 12 journalists, three Ministry of Information minders (government workers assigned to keep tabs on us and those we talked to) and maybe a dozen soldiers...

Lebanon’s new president receives Iran’s Foreign Minister (AP) Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif on Monday became the first foreign minister to visit newly appointed Lebanese President Michel Aoun, underscoring the ties between Iran and Aoun’s Hezbollah-backed presidency. The Shiite militant group and predominantly Shiite Iran are close allies. Speaking alongside his Lebanese counterpart, Zarif said recent political developments in Lebanon can be the key to breaking the deadlock in wars in Iraq, Syria and Yemen...

Lebanon boosts schooling to help refugee children (SBS.com) It’s estimated there are a quarter of a million Syrian refugee children in the country who currently don’t have access to school. With more than half a million Syrian children taking refuge in Lebanon, the country is looking to foster better educational opportunities for all young people. New research, aimed at developing ways to offer better access to schools, has been announced...

Ukraine hopes for continued support from U.S. under Trump (Reuters) Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said he hoped the United States would continue to support Ukraine in its stand-off with Russia following the victory of Donald Trump in the U.S. presidential election...



8 November 2016
Greg Kandra




An Iraqi Christian soldier wearing a rosary stands inside the badly damaged Church of the Immaculate Conception on 2 November in Qaraqosh, near Mosul.
(photo: CNS/Alaa Al-Marjani, Reuters)


Christians struggle to survive amid wreckage left by ISIS (The Independent) The 28,000 people from Qaraqosh who stayed inside Iraq have understandable doubts about going home, even if Isis is fully defeated and loses Mosul. “There is no security while ISIS is still in Mosul,” says Yohanna Towara, a farmer, teacher and community leader in the town, but even when ISIS is gone the Christians will be vulnerable. He says that “the priority is for us to control our local affairs and to know who will rule the area in which we live.” He adds that the need for permanent security outweighs the need to repair the destruction wrought primarily by Isis but also by US-led air strikes...

Iraqi experts investigate mass grave near Mosul (BBC) Iraqi forensic experts are investigating a mass grave that was discovered by troops advancing towards the Islamic State-held city of Mosul. The Iraqi military has said the grave, in the grounds of an agricultural college in the town of Hamam al-Alil, contains about 100 decapitated bodies...

Syrian rebels battle near Aleppo (Reuters) The Syrian army said it had taken a strategic district of Aleppo on Tuesday, in what would be the most important advance in the divided city by Damascus and its allies in weeks, but rebels said the battle was not over. The 1070 Apartments district is located on the southwestern outskirts of Aleppo and lies alongside the government’s corridor into the parts of the city that it controls...

Egypt church construction law labeled ‘regressive’ (Daily News of Egypt) The Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR), an NGO concerned with human rights, discussed in a press conference Wednesday the downsides of the Church Construction Law, issued in August, arguing that the law is regressive for religious freedoms...

Refugee life in Lebanon empowers Syrian women (Ya Libnan) For some Syrian women living in Lebanon, the bitter realities of life as a refugee have nourished an unexpected side effect: empowerment. Difficult economic and legal circumstances have pushed women to take on more responsibilities within their families, including many that were once a man’s domain. Uprooted from some familiar social constraints and exposed to programs promoting women’s rights through contact with aid groups, some of them have obtained a degree of personal autonomy they never experienced in Syria...







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