The Orthodox Church: A Shared Belief

by Rev. Thomas Hopko
photos: St. Vladimir’s Seminary

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In January of 1964 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople embraced each other in the holy city of Jerusalem. They prayed that God would inaugurate an era of love and reconciliation between the world’s Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians. In the 15 years following this historic meeting, the first such encounter between the leading bishops of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches since 1439, efforts have been made on all levels of churchly life for Roman Catholics and Orthodox to rediscover the unity in Christian faith and love which once existed between them.

The Orthodox Church today consists of the ancient patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch and Constantinople, the last of which is called the Ecumenical Patriarchate, since Constantinople (now Istanbul in Turkey) was once the capital city of the Roman and Byzantine Empire. The Patriarch of Constantinople exercises the office of leader of world Orthodoxy in that he presides over all affairs having to do with the Orthodox churches throughout the world. The bishop of Constantinople, however, as the Ecumenical Patriarch in the East, cannot be equated with the bishop of Rome in the West as he has none of the powers of jurisdiction within the Orthodox Church that the Pope of Rome has in the Roman communion.

In addition to the four ancient patriarchates, there are in the Orthodox family of churches the newer patriarchates of Russia, Serbia (in Yugoslavia), Romania and Bulgaria; and there are also the ancient, self-governing churches of Georgia (or Iberia, in the USSR) and Cyprus; as well as the more recently established churches of Greece, Albania (declared nonexistent by the socialist government of the country), Poland, Czechoslovakia and America.

These fifteen self-governing churches form the world family of Orthodox Churches. They all confess the same doctrines, worship with the same liturgical rites, regulate their lives by the same church discipline, and nurture their members with the same spiritual tradition. They form one ecclesiastical communion. They identify their faith and life with that of the apostolic church of Christ. They claim to express an unbroken succession of catholic Christian faith and order from the apostolic church to the present day.

The central affirmation of the Orthodox Church is that the one true and living God who created heaven and earth is the God of Israel and the Father of Jesus Christ. Orthodox believe that Jesus Christ existed eternally with God before creation as His uncreated Son, Word and Image; that He is the one by, in and for whom all things were made; and that He was born into the world as a real human being by the Virgin Mary as the promised messiah of Israel and the savior of the world.

Orthodox believe as well that God has with Himself from all eternity not only His only-begotten Son, but also His most Holy Spirit who “proceeds from the Father” and is divine with exactly the same divinity as that of God the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit is God’s power and breath who empowers the creation of the world, who speaks in the law and the prophets of Israel, who inspires the writing and the interpreting of the Bible, and who is in and on Jesus, showing Him to be God’s eternal Son in human flesh who saves the world and gives the same Spirit to all who believe in His Name.

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Tags: Eastern Christianity Orthodox Church Church history Catholic-Orthodox relations