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“Our assistance is more systemic now, geared toward more long-term efforts,” says the priest, who also heads the Greek Catholic Church’s social services department. “This war will be with us for many years to come in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder. People are fatigued, including priests. The official position of the church is to be open, help and meet to face to face.”

Although Caritas already has a rehabilitation program employing psychologists, it also wants to involve teachers — often the best positioned to work with displaced children and parents experiencing stress from displacement or witnessing violence.

Some of the displaced, such as the Didos family from Yenakieve in the Donetsk region, have chosen not to register as internally displaced. After shelling destroyed their neighborhood, Yevheniya, 30, and Andriy Didos, 31, fled to Lviv in August 2014. As with Nataliya Menshykova, they knew the city because one of their three children had received treatment there for a cleft palate.

They also chose it for being open and sharing the “same values as we,” Mrs. Didos says. She occasionally attends Greek Catholic liturgies with new friends, despite her family’s Orthodox faith.

“It’s not just about Easter Sunday, it’s about communion, family and God,” she adds.

Still, they have faced discrimination. A former biology teacher, Mrs. Didos says realtors would often either refuse to rent to her family, or offer living space at above-market rates.

“They think people from Donbas are brazen, and would inquire why my husband wasn't fighting in the east,” she explains.

Caritas has helped the family enroll one of their children in a day care center, has provided money for medicine and has offered counseling to help them adjust.

A trained electrician, Mr. Didos now drives a taxi in Lviv.

They live in a temporary shelter at a Jesuit Refugee Service house and have only three months left.

About two-thirds of the displaced will remain so for the next five years, says Maksym Bondarenko of Caritas. Heorhiy Tuka, Ukraine’s deputy minister of Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally Displaced People, provided similar estimates. And as the war stretches on, some may never return home.

“The more people from the countryside get to urban areas, the less inclined they are to go back. Things change. It’s a matter of hope,” the U.N.’s Ms. Manzi says.

Thus, what the displaced now face is a recalibration of self-identification, according to Caritas rehabilitation expert and sociologist Oksana Ivankova-Stetsyuk.

This entails choosing a life strategy, she explains. “If, before, many hoped to return home soon, today they’re undergoing an existential crisis,” she says. “People now are realizing their displacement isn’t temporary, but is an indefinite displacement and they have to live here.”

According to U.N. data, in 2016 many of the approximately 200,000 displaced people who did return home did so because they could not afford living in government-controlled areas. For many, their savings had dried up and they could not find sustainable livelihoods. Some went back because fighting had subsided.

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